Valuing ecosystem services for conservation and development purposes: A case study from Kenya Silvestri, S.; Zaibet, L.; Said, M.Y.; Kifugo, S.C. This paper mapped and valued key inter-related drylands ecosystem services of importance to pastoralists, crop farmers, the tourism industry, conservationists, and policy planners in the Ewaso Ng’iro basin, the largest of the five major basins in Kenya. We used an ecosystem services approach where only final benefits are valued to avoid double counting. The final benefits are ecosystem services or commodities which have an economic value. The supply of ecosystem services depends on the functioning of ecosystems, but rarely ecological and institutional boundaries coincide and often stakeholders in ecosystem services cut across a range of institutional zones and scales. Land use and management influence the system processes, properties and components that are the basis of services provision. Although much has been written about the need to quantify and value ecosystem services, there are fewer spatially explicit studies that delineate the supply and demand areas for ecosystem services and assess the trade-offs between ecosystem services over space and time especially on drylands. Based on the spatial distribution of resources and the existing competition over these resources, this paper assesses the current values attributed to the selected ecosystem services. Then, by mapping existing supporting infrastructure and drivers of land use change such as demographic pressure, we highlight trade-offs and synergies among alternative uses and opportunities for sustainable development. In particular, the paper identifies services that will be lost if a particular part of landscape is modified: e.g. benefits for livestock and wildlife can be affected by the lack of conservation of corridors and rangelands, while water supply and irrigated crops can be compromised by increased water demand as result of human population pressure mainly at the upstream sub-catchments. We demonstrate the value of spatial analysis to land use investments and management and highlight how conservation and management of ecosystem services require the understanding of the spatial links between ecosystems and human well-being.
Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Haemonchus contortus artificial challenge in Red Maasai and Dorper sheep of East Africa Marshall, K.; Mugambi, J.M.; Nagda, S.; Sonstegard, T.S.; Tassell, C.P. van; Baker, R.L.; Gibson, J.P. A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs were artificially challenged with H. contortus at about 6.5 months of age, and nine phenotypes were measured: fecal egg count, packed cell volume decline, two weight traits and five worm traits. A subset of the population (342 lambs) was selectively genotyped for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of the 26 autosomes. QTL mapping was performed for models which assumed that the QTL alleles were either fixed or segregating within each breed, combined with models with only an additive QTL effect fitted or both additive and dominance QTL effects fitted. Overall, QTL significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level were identified for 22 combinations of trait and chromosome. Of particular interest are a region of chromosome 26 with putative QTL for all nine traits and a region of chromosome 2 with putative QTL for three traits. Favorable QTL alleles for disease resistance originated in both the Red Maasai and Dorper breeds, were not always fixed within breed and had significant dominance effects in some cases. We anticipate that this study, in combination with follow-up work and other relevant studies, will help elucidate the biology of disease resistance.
The Daily Tail, 17 May 2013 ILRI
The Daily Tail, 16 May 2013 ILRI
The potential influence of social networks on the adoption of breeding strategies Pali, P.N.; Zaibet, L.; Mburu, S.K.; Ndiwa, N.; Rware, H.I. Smallholder livestock farmers face challenges such as lack of appropriate fora and networks which can motivate and influence the adoption of breeding strategies in West Africa. Efforts to ensure participation of livestock owners in breeding programs such as performance recording, the use of village herd stocks for breeding programs have been documented as has the creation of livestock producer organizations to enhance effective participation of farmers in breeding programs. The study was conducted in southern Mali where livestock such as the N’dama cattle are endemic. We explored baseline characteristics from a household and community survey to determine the potential effects of individual, household and network characteristics on the knowledge and use of livestock breeding strategies. We assume that interaction amongst stakeholders results in transfer of knowledge between stakeholders. Results from the stakeholder analysis of the types of stakeholders present at the site level were used in the Probit and Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Farmers’ organisations were commonly found at the village level. However, despite the presence of these organizations across sites, they do not interact with the technical organisations as often as they should hence a lower incidence of use of livestock breeding technologies across sites. Results from the models confirm the importance of networks as key determinants to improve the adoption of breeding technologies.
The Daily Tail, 15 May 2013 ILRI
Livestock Matter(s): ILRI news round-up, April 2013 ILRI
ILRI research on biotechnology to fight a major disease threat to cattle and people in Africa ILRI
Sheep fattening value chain development in Goma Pilot Learning Woreda (PLW): IPMS experiences Baredo, Y.; Tefera, T.L.; Tegegne, A.; Hoekstra, D. Traditionally, most smallholder farmers in Goma and elsewhere in Ethiopia engage in sheep and goat fattening to generate sufficient income to meet household requirements and other social obligations. A rapid assessment with IPMS project partners in Goma found that traditional sheep fattening is constrained by inadequate feed supply, low nutritive value of available feed resources, and lack of technical knowledge which resulted in prolonged fattening period and low economic return. Accidental death or loss of fattened animals for various reasons is another challenge for vulnerable smallholders, especially if sheep are purchased on credit. During discussion with various stakeholders, several potential interventions were identified to initiate a more commercially oriented small ruminant enterprise addressing some of the constraints with new interventions. These included i) reduced fattening periods through supplementary feed using locally available cotton seed meal (CSM), ii) piloting a community-based/managed livestock insurance scheme with 120 target farmers in Kilole PA, iii) introducing an innovative credit scheme through Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company (OCSSCo) for entrepreneurial fattening, and iv) introducing leguminous forage seed multiplication by model farmers. Meetings were held by the district OoA staff in some Peasant Associations to discuss identified problems and potential interventions. Subsequently, one pilot Peasant Association that agreed to include women in the program was selected. Other discussions/trainings were also held with farmers and project partners to develop community-based livestock insurance scheme and to increase knowledge and skills on supplementary feeding and forage (seed) production and selection of lambs for fattening. Following the value chain approach, linkages were created with the woreda veterinary services and an oil extraction factory in the District capital which produced cotton seed meal; this had never been used in the District before. We facilitated the linkage of target farmers with OCSSCo. Data were collected from all 120 target farmers using a questionnaire and group discussion. The study showed that more than 74% of the farmers managed to shorten the fattening period by 50%, i.e. from six months to three months. In the course of first cycle, 510 sheep were fattened of which 15 died. Thirteen (13) were immediately refunded by the community-based livestock insurance scheme and 2 claims were rejected by the livestock insurance capital managing committee based on conditions spelled out in the by-laws. Average return from five sheep in one cycle was about Ethiopian birr (ETB)1 450. Loan repayment by women participants was 100%, and some male farmers defaulted. Scaling out is taking place, which includes fattening more sheep per cycle by some entrepreneurial female farmers.
Importance of livestock and the technological and policy challenges facing the development of livestock in Africa Blummel, M.; Toye, P.; Mwai, O.; Wright, I.; Randolph, T.; Staal, S.
Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa (BeCA) ILRI-hub annual letter 2012 Djikeng, A.
Diseases of economic and zoonotic importance in pig farming in Uganda: Control practices, successes, failures and the way forward Nsadha, Z.
Successes and failures with technology interventions on pig feeding promoted in Uganda Mutetikka, D.
Feeding and breeding systems in the Uganda smallholder pigs value chain Carter, N.; Pezo, D.
Participatory rapid assessment of animal health and management practices in the Uganda smallholder pig value chain Dione, M.
The smallholder pigs in-depth value chain assessment in Uganda: How was it conducted? Pezo, D.; Ouma, E.; Dione, M.; Rosel, K.
Integrating gender into livestock value chains Colverson, K.
Livelihood assessment, decision-making and institutions in the Uganda smallholder pig value chain: Results from descriptive analyses Ouma, E.
Value chain mapping: Results from VCA descriptive analyses of the Uganda’s smallholder pigs value chain Lule, P.; Ouma, E.
Successes and failures of institutional innovations for improving access to services, input and output markets for smallholder pig production systems and value chains in Uganda Tatwangire, A