Effect of feeding differently processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) bagasse based complete diet on nutrient utilization and microbial N supply in growing ram lambs Kumari, N.N.; Reddy, Y.R.; Blummel, M.; Nagalakshmi, D.; Monika, T.; Reddy, B.V.S.; Kumar, A.A. This study was carried out to identify appropriate processing method for efficient utilization of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), an agro-industrial by product of ethanol industry after blending with concentrate. SSB based complete diet with roughage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 was processed into mash (SSBM), expander extruded pellet (SSBP), chop form (SSBC) and evaluated in comparison to sorghum stover based complete diet in mash form (SSM). Twenty four Nellore X Deccani ram lambs (9 month age; 21.1 ± 0.57 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and the experimental complete diets were allotted at random to each group and evaluated for their intake, nutrient utilization and microbial N supply. Among all the groups, the average dry matter (DM) intake (g/kg w0.75), digested DM, organic matter and crude protein were higher (P < 0.01) in lambs fed SSBP diet. The cellulose digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in lambs fed SSBP diet than those fed SSM and SSBC diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP, g/d) and metabolizable energy (MJ/d) were higher (P < 0.01) in lambs fed SSBP diet. The SSBP diet had higher (P < 0.01) DCP and N (P < 0.05) balance compared to other three diets. Increased (P < 0.01) purine derivatives and microbial N supply was observed in processed diets. Expander extrusion of SSB based complete diet resulted in improved (P < 0.01) efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. It is concluded that, when SSB was processed into complete diets, in terms of nutrient utilization and microbial N supply, the expander extruded pellet diet was better utilized than chopped or mash form by the growing ram lambs.
Women and livestock: Why gender matters are big matters Colverson, K.; MacMillan, S.; Odongo, D.
An introduction to environmental and occupational health and safety at the International Livestock Research Institute ILRI
How to improve pig farming: A training workshop ILRI
Ivan Morrison: Improved Vaccines for the Control of East Coast Fever Inception Workshop Morrison, I. An interview with Ivan Morrison of the Roslin Institute on the sidelines of an inception workshop for the Improved Vaccines of the Control of East Coast Fever in Cattle in Africa Project, held 27-29 Jan in Nairobi, Kenya
Lucilla Steinaa: Improved Vaccines for the Control of East Coast Fever Inception Workshop Steinaa, L. An interview with Lucilla Steinaa of ILRI on the sidelines of an inception workshop for the Improved Vaccines of the Control of East Coast Fever in Cattle in Africa Project, held 27-29 Jan in Nairobi, Kenya.
Cynthia Baldwin: Improved Vaccines for the Control of East Coast Fever Inception Workshop Baldwin, C. An interview with Cynthia Baldwin of the US Agency for International Development on the sidelines of an inception workshop for the Improved Vaccines of the Control of East Coast Fever in Cattle in Africa Project, held 27-29 Jan in Nairobi, Kenya.
More milk in Tanzania (MoreMilkiT): Adapting dairy market hubs for pro-poor smallholder value chains in Tanzania (a ‘Maziwa Zaidi’ project) ILRI
Battling an African cattle killer: Why East Coast fever matters Kiara, H. Henry Kiara, a veterinary epidemiologist at ILRI talks about the risk posed by East Coast fever and how a vaccine against the disease helps protect cattle in the continent.
Battling an African cattle killer: Second-generation vaccine against East Coast fever Nene, V. In this film, Vish Nene director of the Vaccines Biosciences program at ILRI, talks about new research that is seeking to create a second-generation vaccine against East Coast fever.
Senegal dairy genetics project: Work package 2 update Marshall, K.
Improved vaccines for the control of East Coast fever in cattle in Africa ILRI
Les Cobays Domestiques—The BecA Hub Domestic Cavies Project ILRI Food security is a real challenge in most parts of Africa. This is particularly so when the quantity and quality of animal-source foods are concerned. All over Africa, dietary protein remains very low. Regular supply of small quantities of animal protein has been shown to be crucial for adequate physical and cognitive development of children Domestic cavies in DRCDomestic cavies (or guinea pigs as they are called in other parts of the world) provide a high-quality meat source with high levels of protein in similar quantity as chicken meat, i.e. the raw meat generally contains about 19-20% protein as opposed to beef or lamb with lower protein contents (17-19%)2. The cavy skin that is usually consumed, contains even more than 30% protein. In addition, the white cavy meat has excellent nutritional property, being low in cholesterol3. Domestic cavy4 (Cavia porcellus L.) are widely used as meat in a broad belt of sub-humid Africa, from Senegal in West Africa to Tanzania in East Africa5. Despite their widespread use in these countries - domestic cavies have been largely ignored in research and development. Little is known about production systems and productivity, genetic diversity, feeding systems, consumption habits of people, and cavy culture in general, as this small animal of South American origin is usually ignored in livestock census surveys. In eastern and central Africa, it appears that cavies are well accepted in various cultures; are heavily relied upon for family nutrition and they are important for income generation, especially for women and children. In the southern highlands of Tanzania, for example, cavy meat was perceived second most important after chicken by cavy holders6, meaning that the rearing of this animal impacts the nutrition of poor smallholders. How will the project contribute to research and development for Africa? This project is focused on improving alternative and rapid access to food and income in Cameroon and the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by improving cavy production. The project will provide the first census of cavy production in eastern DRC as cavies are not counted in livestock census data, therefore real numbers have never been collected. Based on our preliminary estimates, this project has the potential to improve cavy production in over 200,000 households in eastern DRC. Specifically the project team will: (i) Map and characterize current cavy culture in Cameroon and eastern DRC by undertaking household surveys; (ii) Implement genetic diversity studies (using SSR molecular makers) to guide the development of a breeding program; (iii) Target improved, agro-ecologically adapted forage plants to local farming systems to enable households to understand how to improve animal feed; and (iv) Train African researchers, students and extension staff in molecular breeding; tropical forage husbandry and propagation systems; and improved methods of cavy culture. Lead institutions comprise the BecA-ILRI Hub, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Nairobi), the University of Dschang School of Agriculture (Cameroon), and Université Evangélique en Afrique (UEA) in Bukavu, South Kivu Province, DRC. Research partners: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia Food for the Hungry, an international NGO Heifer Project International, an international NGO Centre d'Accompagnement de Nouvelles Alternatives de Développement Local, Cameroon Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturels, Lwiro, South Kivu, DRC Mission de Développement du Nord Ouest, Cameroon Projet d'Appui aux Elevages Non Conventionnels, Cameroon South West Development Authority, Cameroon Service d'Appui aux Initiatives Locales de Développement, Cameroon Women for Women, an international NGO Australian connections: Scientists from Advanced Research Institutes in Australia, namely the CSIRO and universities, will support the project by collaborating and advising in research areas, such as: Human nutrition: effects of animal-source food on human health Animal improvement: genetics, animal breeding Capacity building: training of cavy famers, staff and students from African universities and/or research institutes.
Spatial variation in the willingness to accept payments for conservation of a migratory wildlife corridor in the Athi-Kaputiei Plains, Kenya Leeuw, J.M. de; Said, M.Y.; Kifugo, S.; Ogutu, J.O.; Osano, P.; Leeuw, J. de To be effective in promoting the conservation of migratory wildlife, recipients of payment for ecosystem services (PES) must be willing to accept payment along the entire migratory corridor. This paper investigates spatial variation in willingness to accept (WTA) payments made by the Wildlife Conservation Lease Program in the Athi-Kaputiei plains of Kenya. The program, designed as an incentive to keep land open for wildlife and livestock, offers land owners 10 US$ per ha per year, irrespective of location. We model the relation between WTA and distances to roads, towns and rivers, annual precipitation and slope and display the predicted spatial variation in WTA. The results reveal significant spatial variation in willingness to accept payments for availing land for conservation, with higher WTA concentrated away from roads and also in the Southeast of the plains. The results further suggest that wildlife movement will be blocked due to low WTA in the proximity of towns and tarmacked roads. We conclude that an effective strategy to keep the land open for migratory wildlife should consider spatial variation in WTA payment for land lease. It is suggested to consider stratifying the lease rates geographically to reflect the underlying spatial variation in WTA.
Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions Havlik, P.; Valin, H.; Herrero, M.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Rufino, M.C.; Mosnier, A.; Thornton, P.K.; Bottcher, H.; Conant, R.T.; Frank, S.; Fritz, S.; Fuss, S.; Kraxner, F.; Notenbaert, A. Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed and high-resolution representation of livestock production systems. We project that by 2030 autonomous transitions toward more efficient systems would decrease emissions by 736 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (MtCO2e⋅y−1), mainly through avoided emissions from the conversion of 162 Mha of natural land. A moderate mitigation policy targeting emissions from both the agricultural and land-use change sectors with a carbon price of US$10 per tCO2e could lead to an abatement of 3,223 MtCO2e⋅y−1. Livestock system transitions would contribute 21% of the total abatement, intra- and interregional relocation of livestock production another 40%, and all other mechanisms would add 39%. A comparable abatement of 3,068 MtCO2e⋅y−1 could be achieved also with a policy targeting only emissions from land-use change. Stringent climate policies might lead to reductions in food availability of up to 200 kcal per capita per day globally. We find that mitigation policies targeting emissions from land-use change are 5 to 10 times more efficient—measured in “total abatement calorie cost”—than policies targeting emissions from livestock only. Thus, fostering transitions toward more productive livestock production systems in combination with climate policies targeting the land-use change appears to be the most efficient lever to deliver desirable climate and food availability outcomes.
Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for human health Fahrion, A.S.; Jamir, L.; Richa, K.; Begum, S.; Rutsa, V.; Ao, S.; Padmakumar, V.P.; Deka, R.P.; Grace, D. Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.
Review of sheep research and development projects in Ethiopia Gizaw, S.; Abegaz, S.; Rischkowsky, B.; Haile, A.; Mwai, A.O.; Dessie, T.
Supporting the vulnerable: Increasing adaptive capacities of agropastoralists to climate change in West and southern Africa using a transdisciplinary research approach Steeg, J. van de; Herrero, M.; Notenbaert, A. The world’s climate is changing rapidly and Africa will be severely affected by this, not only because of the effects on ecosystems but also because of the low adaptive capacity of communities due to poverty and lack of infrastructure, services, and appropriate policies to support adaptation strategies. A large share of Africa’s poor are dependent on livestock for some part of their livelihoods, most of these living in smallholder, rainfed mixed systems and pastoral systems, where livestock play a key role as assets providing multiple economic, social, and risk management functions. The goal of this transdisciplinary project is to increase the adaptive capacity of agropastoralists, who are one of the most vulnerable groups in Africa, to climate change and variability. The purpose of this project is to co-generate methods, information and solutions between local communities, local and international scientists, policymakers and other actors involved in climate change and adaptation programs, for coping mechanisms and adapting strategies to climate change and variability in West and Southern Africa, and more particularly in Mali and Mozambique. To quantify the magnitudes of the effects of climate variability and change on the productivity of rangelands, crops and livestock and how these changes affect agropastoralists, spatial data layers were created, collated and documented related to climate variability and change, production systems, primary production, vulnerability and feed resources. First a generalized downscaling and data generation method was used to take the outputs of a General Circulation Models (GCM) to describe some future climatology and to allow the stochastic generation of daily weather data that are to some extent characteristic of this future climatology, that can then be used to drive impact models that require daily (or otherwise aggregated) weather data. Secondly a global livestock production system classification scheme that integrates the notions of crop and livestock interactions with agro-ecological zones was extended by including indicators of the major crops grown in the mixed crop–livestock areas. Next a dynamic global vegetation crop model was used for simulating crop and rangeland yields, water and carbon fluxes and water productivities under different climate and land use scenarios. Areas of reduced primary productivity were identified and characterized and overlaid with information on poverty and livelihoods, to identify hotspots where productivity reductions may have serious repercussions on smallholders’ wellbeing. Communities have been adapting to change and variability for centuries. Household surveys and in-depth narrative analyses were conducted with agropastoral communities to document, synthesise and help disseminate their past and present coping mechanisms and adaptation strategies, particularly those related to livestock, for which there is relatively little information. Several institutions are already working on promoting adaptation strategies in West and Southern Africa. We collated and documented the strategies promoted, and together with the indigenous information provided by agropastoralist communities we initiated dialogues between the different stakeholders to jointly prioritize adaptation strategies, to select a few for pilot testing. By doing this we can provide active learning opportunities and promote the co-creation of adaptation options between different stakeholders. Implementation and dissemination of technical adaptation options often fails due to the lack of support from the policy environment. Together with key policymaking institutions and regional policymaking bodies we identified and promoted policy entry points to support the implementation of priority adaptation strategies, and we identified policy mechanisms that in themselves are an appropriate intervention to allow agropastoralists to buffer the effects of climate variability and change.
Applying innovation system principles to fodder scarcity: Experiences from the Fodder Innovation Project Reddy, T.S.V.; Puskur, R.; Hall, A.; Sulaiman, R.
Improving access to animal health services in disadvantaged locations—An impact narrative from Nagaland, India Padmakumar, V.; Deka, R.P.; Sones, K.R.