PA Clippings

Of cows, camels and ‘charity insurance’ on Kenya’s Somali frontier–The Economist

Takaful insurance policy holder in Wajir, northern Kenya

Bashir Ibrahim Mohamed, Takaful Insurance of Africa policy holder. Ibrahim is the father of Hassan Bashir, the CEO of TIA (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

‘As well as a cheque for $700, a knowing look passed between Hassan Bashir and Bashir Mohamed, his 80-year-old father. A payment at a ceremony for herders in Wajir, a town near Kenya’s border with Somalia, settled an argument dating back to 1997, when the son moved into the insurance business.

Mr Bashir, born into a cattle-herding Somali family in the rugged north-east of Kenya, was told that his career choice was not only odd but un-Islamic. Many imams say that sharia law does not sanction conventional insurance, deeming it to contain elements of gambling.

‘Despite being proud of his earning power, Mr Bashir found his father would not touch the money. He would not even accept the cash to go on the haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. “He did not know anything about insurance,” said the son. “He just knew it was wrong.”

‘His family’s disapproval persuaded Mr Bashir to set up Takaful, Kenya’s first sharia-compliant insurance company. It offers mutual or “charity insurance”, whereby the insurer acts as an agent, charging a set fee rather than un-Islamic interest. But Mr Bashir would not stop at insuring his community’s cars, homes and businesses; he wanted to solve their biggest problem, the loss of livestock to drought.

Camels herded to water in Wajir, northern Kenya

Camels at a water point near Wajir, northern Kenya (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

‘That proved harder. Insuring animals who range with semi-nomadic herders across some of the harshest terrain on earth had defeated all previous efforts. Eventually he came across the work of a Kenyan economist, Andrew Mude of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), based in Nairobi.

‘Mr Mude has developed an insurance model that uses satellite images to assess the impact of drought on the vegetation that camels, cows and goats need to survive. . . .

This model “insures the grass, not the animal”, says Mr Mude.. . .

‘Persuading seasoned Somali herders who have been husbanding their animals the same way for centuries to pay insurance premiums has not been easy. Mr Bashir has bent the ear of local imams and sheikhs and brought in Islamic scholars. Meanwhile donors, including Britain and Australia, whose aid agencies fund ILRI, have stumped up more money to get the word out around Wajir. . . .’

Jimmy Smith (left) and DFID's Lisa Phillips, at the Wajir insurance payouts

Jimmy Smith, director general of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and Lisa Phillips, of the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) at a ceremony for payment vouchers to eligible participants, Takaful Insurance of Africa policy holders at the Red Cross Hall, in Wajir, northern Kenya, in Mar 2014 (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

ILRI works in collaboration with a wide array of partners in this program that include the government of the Republic of Kenya, Cornell University and the Index Insurance Innovation Initiative (I4), among many others.

ILRI and partners want to see livestock insurance available throughout East Africa, where an estimated 70 million people live in drylands, many of them making their living by herding animals. In Kenya alone, the pastoral livestock sector is estimated to be worth at least USD5 billion. The eight-nation Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) estimates that over 90 percent of the meat consumed in East Africa comes from pastoral herds.

So far, about 4,000 pastoralists in northern Kenya, not all of them Muslim, have bought IBLI contracts since the project launched in 2010, an indication that there is both interest in and demand for livestock insurance.

Watch a 4-minute film by The Economist on the insurance payout in Wajir: The Economist video on livestock insurance payouts in Wajir, Kenya

Read the whole article in The Economist: A new kind of insurance may protect herders against drought, 19 Apr 2014 (print edition).

Read ILRI’s news release about this event: Africa’s first ‘Islamic-compliant’ livestock insurance pays 100 herders in Kenya’s remote drylands of Wajir for drought-related livestock losses, 25 Mar 2014.

See other photos of this event.

Read other news clippings about this event:
Shelter from the storm (literally): As remote herders get drought-related insurance payments, the heaven’s open, 5 Apr 2014
Africa’s first Islamic insurance for herders, 2 Apr 2014
Takaful, ILRI payout ‘sharia-compliant’ insurance to drought-suffering livestock herders in Wajir, 28 Mar 2014


Filed under: Australia, CRP11, Drought, Drylands, East Africa, Event, ILRI, ILRIComms, Insurance, Integrated Sciences, Kenya, Launch, LGI, PA, UK Tagged: Andrew Mude, Economist, Hassan Bashir, IBLT, Takaful Insurance

Having your cake and eating it too–Working both the production and consumption ends of ‘the meat question’

I and the Village, by Marc Chagall, 1911 (via Wikipaintings).

The Food Climate Research Network (FCRN) site has published (10 Apr 2014) an interesting comment on an interesting paper by Petr Havlík et al., Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, published in Feb 2014 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Several of the co-authors of this paper are scientists at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

Excerpts of the FCRN comments follow.

‘. . . This paper looks at the growth in ruminant production worldwide and at the emissions arising from that growth, under a range of different scenarios. It does not look at monogastric systems (pigs and poultry). . . .

‘The paper then looks at all five scenarios and assesses their mitigation effect in relation to the effect they have on overall per capita calorie availability. In other words it looks at what the calorie “cost” of these mitigation scenarios might be, arguing that this is critical given the prevalence of malnutrition worldwide.

‘It finds the following:

  • ‘The higher the carbon price, the greater the mitigation potential but also the higher the calorie cost.
  • ‘Targeting just land use change emissions achieves more mitigation per unit of calorie cost than targeting the non CO2 emissions. However, from a food security point of view, targeting the non CO2 gases (ie. largely the livestock sector) may be more efficient since livestock constitute a smaller overall share of calories than other foods – in other words, it doesn’t hit the non livestock food groups so badly.
  • ‘However – and this is the point that has been highlighted in all the media publicity surrounding this paper – measures that address consumption and demand directly (rather than supply) deliver less mitigation potential at higher calorie cost.
  • ‘The paper therefore concludes that a focus on consumption is inefficient and less effective than addressing the production side. . . .

‘[T]he way the paper’s findings have been represented in the press (and to a certain extent in the paper itself) might lead one to suppose that there is no role for consumption side measures. However this would be misleading for the following reasons:

‘Given the nature of the climate and environmental problems we face, we do not have the luxury of adopting an either-or position. Most commentators who highlight the need to address consumption also emphasise the need for production side approaches (eg. see the paper by Hedenus et al)

‘Following on from this, rather than have a polarised discussion about the merits of production versus consumption side approaches, a more interesting approach might be to examine how policies might be more effectively targeted at optimising and synergising production and consumption changes so as to deliver environmental (not just climate) improvements while also enhancing nutritional outcomes (including over as well as under consumption related issues). Approaches here will need to go beyond simplistically considering “the meat question” to look at the role, both positive and negative, of other foods as well. . . .’

Read the whole commentary on the FCRN site: FCRN summary and comments on Havlík et al, (2014), Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10 Apr 2014.

Read the paper that elicted the comments: Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, by P Havlík, H Valin, M Herrero, M Obersteiner, E Schmid, M Rufino, A Mosnier, P Thornton, H Boettcher, R Conant, S Frank, S Fritz, S Fuss, F Kraxner and A Notenbaert, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Feb 2014.


Filed under: Animal Production, Article, Climate Change, Consumption, CRP7, Environment, Food security, ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Intensification, LSE, Opinion piece, PA Tagged: FCRN, greenhouse gas emissons, Petr Havlik, PNAS

The roads not taken: Should 1bn overfed people eat less meat? Or 1bn hungry farmers become more efficient?

The Butcher, by Marc Chagall, 1910 (via Wikipaintings).

Should you become vegetarian to help mitigate against global warming? Well, you could, or you might try just eating less meat, if you’re one of some 1 billion people chronically eating too much food. On the other hand, you might try helping some 1 billion small-scale livestock farmers in poor countries become more efficient.

What follows is how North America’s NPR program ‘The Salt’ recently set out the alternatives.

‘We Americans are heavy consumers of meat, and we’re increasingly reminded that eating less of it will shrink our carbon footprint. Growing the crops to feed all those animals releases lots of greenhouse gases.

‘But a new study argues that eating less meat isn’t a very practical climate-protection recipe for developing countries, where demand for meat is rising most quickly. The study’s authors say there’s a better path: Help farmers produce livestock more efficiently, and reduce the incentive to snap up new land to graze their animals.

‘The analysis, which appeared Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, starts with the stark reality of rising demand for animal products: It’s projected to double by 2050. And given that the livestock industry is already responsible for 12 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions (from feeding, raising and transporting animals), that means it’s poised to generate a whole lot more.

‘Can that big increase be avoided? According to the researchers, many of whom hail from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria, and other agricultural and ecological research institutions around the world, it can. And the key, paradoxically, is to get animals to eat more grain. . . .

‘”If we’re able to develop policies to become more efficient producers of these products, we can continue to meet demand while reducing emissions,” Rich Conant, an ecosystem ecologist at the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State University [and at the International Livestock Research Institute, ILRI] and a co-author of the study, tells The Salt.

We already know there are lots of things producers can do on the farm, and there’s a lot of research going on how they can more effectively manage the herd, to how they can get more meat from the animals, to how they manage the waste.” . . .

Mario Herrero, the chief research scientist at Australia’s national science agency, the CSIRO, and another of the study’s authors, says . . .

I think there should be tax breaks or incentives (payments for ecosystems services) for farmers to use their land in ways that produce food sustainably,” . . . .’

Read the whole article by Eliza Barclay on the ‘Salt’ program of National Public Radio (USA):
Why farmers can prevent global warming just as well as vegetarians, 25 Feb 2014.

Read the full science paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS):
Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, by Petr Havlík (ILRI and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA], Hugo Valin (IIASA), Mario Herrero (ILRI, now at CSIRO), Michael Obersteiner (IIASA), Erwin Schmid(Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria), Mariana Rufino (ILRI), Aline Mosnier (IIASA), Philip Thornton (ILRI and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security), Hannes Böttcher (IIASA), Richard Conant (ILRI and Colorado State University at Fort Collins), Stefan Frank (IIASA), Steffen Fritz (IIASA), Sabine Fuss (IIASA), Florian Kraxner (IIASA), and An Notenbaert (ILRI), Feb 2014.

Read other articles about this and related papers on the ILRI Clippings Blog:
Yet more evidence that agriculture–particularly livestock agriculture–needs to be part of climate discussions, 13 Apr 2014
Research shows vast differences in livestock systems, diets and emissions–FCRN on PNAS paper, 12 Apr 2014
What livestock eat (and don’t eat) determines how productive, and efficient, they are–PNAS study, 15 Mar 2014
Future of (sustainable) livestock production: Efficient, but measured–Time Magazine on major new ILRI study, 17 Dec 2013

 


Filed under: Animal Production, Article, Climate Change, CRP7, Environment, Geodata, ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Intensification, Livestock Systems, LSE, PA, Policy Tagged: Greenhouse gas emissions, IIASA, Mario Herrero, NPR's The Salt, Petr Havlik, Philip Thornton, PNAS, Rich Conant

Yet more evidence that agriculture–particularly livestock agriculture–needs to be part of climate discussions

The farmyard, by Marc Chagall, 1954 (via Wikipaintings).

Without big interventions, the future of food security looks bleak.

So says an article in One Billion Hungry: Can We Feed the World Website.

The clear message from . . . the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report is the urgent need for farmers to adapt to a changing climate and for all countries to seriously engage in mitigating climate change.

‘Within agriculture, enteric fermentation (methane from livestock) accounts for the largest proportion of emissions (39%) and increased 11% between 2001 and 2010 . . . .

‘With crop yields expected to decline (and already declining in many countries) and agricultural emissions appearing to be on an upwards trajectory, the former perhaps incentivising the latter, we need smarter agriculture, that is resilient to future climate change while also reducing GHG emissions, the very goal of sustainable intensification.

‘A recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, discusses how climate mitigation policies can reduce emissions from the livestock sector. Authors identify much potential to mitigate climate change in livestock production systems, namely the transition from extensive to more productive systems, reducing the livestock sector’s impact on land use change. The paper also recommends emissions reductions should be targeted to the supply (rather than demand) side. Aside from this rather controversial recommendation, this paper, as with many others, identifies significant opportunities to mitigate climate change and increase food supply within the agricultural sector. Serious action on implementing the variety of adaptation and mitigation strategies at the global and local level appears to be the limiting factor in progress.’

Read the whole article in One Billion Hungry: Can We Feed the World Website: Declining crop yields and increasing agricultural emissions, 11 Apr 2014.

Read the full paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS): Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions, by Petr Havlík (ILRI and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA], Hugo Valin (IIASA), Mario Herrero (ILRI, now at CSIRO), Michael Obersteiner (IIASA), Erwin Schmid (Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria), Mariana Rufino (ILRI), Aline Mosnier (IIASA), Philip Thornton (ILRI and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security), Hannes Böttcher (IIASA), Richard Conant (ILRI and Colorado State University at Fort Collins), Stefan Frank (IIASA), Steffen Fritz (IIASA), Sabine Fuss (IIASA), Florian Kraxner (IIASA), and An Notenbaert (ILRI).

Read other articles about this paper in the ILRI Clippings Blog
Research shows vast differences in livestock systems, diets and emissions–FCRN on PNAS paper, 12 Apr 2014
What livestock eat (and don’t eat) determines how productive, and efficient, they are–PNAS study, 15 Mar 2014
Future of (sustainable) livestock production: Efficient, but measured–Time Magazine on major new ILRI study, 17 Dec 2013


Filed under: Animal Production, Article, Climate Change, CRP7, Environment, Geodata, ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Intensification, Livestock Systems, LSE, PA, Policy Tagged: An Notenbaert, CSIRO, Greenhouse gas emissions, IIASA, Mariana Rufino, Mario Herrero, Petr Havlik, Philip Thornton, PNAS

Research shows vast differences in livestock systems, diets and emissions–FCRN on PNAS paper

A cow like that give 5,000 liters a day, by Maria Primachenko, 1978 (via Wikipaintings).

Tara Garnet, of the Food Climate Research Network (FCRN), at Oxford University, recently highlighted a paper published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The paper, Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems, is written by livestock scientists at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, Kenya) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, Australia).

‘This paper provides a detailed analysis of ‘livestock ecosystems’ in different parts of the world and presents a high-resolution dataset of biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions by global livestock. The research shows  vast differences in animal diets and emissions, one example being that animals in  low-income countries require far more food to produce a kilo of protein than animals in wealthy countries. The paper also shows that globally pork and poultry are being produced far more efficiently, defined in terms of feed conversion efficiency, than milk and beef, and greenhouse gas emissions vary widely depending on the animal involved and the quality of its diet.

‘The study breaks down livestock production into nine global regions , calculating their GHG  emissions by region, animal type and animal product. The researchers modelled only the emissions linked directly to animals—the gases released through their digestion and manure production (ie. not land use change or feed production). The study shows that ruminant animals (cows, sheep, and goats) require up to five times more feed to produce a kilo of protein in the form of meat than a kilo of protein in the form of milk.

‘However the authors point out that the lower emission intensities in the pig and poultry sectors are driven largely by industrial systems, systems which also pose significant public health risks (with the transmission of zoonotic diseases from these animals to people) and environmental risks, notably greenhouse gases produced by the energy and transport services needed for industrial livestock production and the felling of forests to grow crops for animal feed.  They also caution against using any single measurement as an absolute indicator of sustainability. For example, the low livestock feed efficiencies and high greenhouse gas emission intensities in sub-Saharan Africa are determined largely by the fact that most animals in this region continue to subsist largely on vegetation inedible by humans, especially by grazing on marginal lands unfit for crop production and the stovers and other residues of plants left on croplands after harvesting.

Abstract
‘We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.’

Read the full paper by Mario Herrero (ILRI, now at CSIRO), Petr Havlík (ILRI and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA], Hugo Valin (IIASA), An Notenbaert (ILRI), Mariana Rufino (ILRI), Philip Thornton (ILRI and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security [CCAFS]), Michael Blümmel (ILRI), Franz Weiss (IIASA), Delia Grace (ILRI) and Michael Obersteiner (IIASA): Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systemsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online before print on 16 Dec 2013.

For supporting online information, including 50 maps, click here.

There is also an  introduction to this Special Feature on Livestock and Global Change: Livestock and global change: Emerging issues for sustainable food systems, by Mario Herrero and Philip Thornton, that can be read here.

Read the article on the website of the Food Climate Research Network about Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems, 10 Jan 2014.


Filed under: Animal Production, Article, Climate Change, CRP7, Environment, Geodata, ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Intensification, Livestock Systems, LSE, PA, Policy Tagged: An Notenbaert, CSIRO, Delia Grace, FCRN, Greenhouse gas emissions, IIASA, Mariana Rufino, Mario Herrero, Petr Havlik, Philip Thornton, PNAS, Tara Garnett

Next-generation ‘cows of the future’

‘The Beautiful Horned, by Jean Dubuffet, 1954.

‘A White House climate initiative has boosted a quixotic search for the “cow of the future”, a next-generation creature whose greenhouse gas emissions would be cut by anti-methane pills, burp scanners and gas backpacks.

‘Carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is the primary man-made gas warming the planet, but methane is far more potent and the US’s biggest source of it is its 88m cattle, which produce more than landfill sites, natural gas leaks or hydraulic fracturing.

‘The Obama administration’s launch last month of a plan to curb methane emissions has given fresh relevance to climate-friendly technologies for cattle that range from dietary supplements and DNA gut tests to strap-on gas tanks.

‘Juan Tricarico, director of the Cow of the Future project at the Innovation Center for US Dairy, an Illinois research institute, said the initiative had boosted his quest to create the “star athlete” of the bovine world. . . .

Based on his research priorities, the dairy cow of the future will be the unstressed inhabitant of spacious accommodation, munching on anti-methane gourmet grains that are processed by an efficient, best-in-species digestive system.

“We want it to be more productive, we want it to be healthier, we want it to be a problem-free cow,” said Mr Tricarico . . . .’

Read the whole article by Barney Jopson in the Financial Times: Scientists seek climate-friendly cow of the future, 8 Apr 2014.


Filed under: Article, Cattle, Dairying, Genetics, ILRIComms, North America, PA, USA Tagged: Financial Times

Shelter from the storm (literally): As remote herders get drought-related insurance payments, the heaven’s open

Livestock market in Wajir

Livestock market in Wajir, where Kenya’s remote, never-before-insured livestock herders are getting their first protection from drought (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

‘It was almost inevitable that the day chosen to make the first drought insurance payments in Wajir, in the arid north-east of Kenya, would be the same day the rains came.

‘Herders who lost sheep, cattle and camels in the scorching first quarter of the year sheltered from the storm in an airless hall waiting for the cheques from an innovative new scheme that seeks to break the drought-and-bust cycle blighting pastoralists across the Horn of Africa.

‘No one among the weathered ranks of Somali herders thought a day of rain was a sign of easier seasons to come. “Drought is always going to come,” said the county governor, Ahmed Abdullahi Mohamad. “If you have rains for two years you know that in the third year they will fail. The question is how we build the systems to deal with drought.”

This is a question that has hung over Andrew Mude, a Kenyan economist, for the past six years. Working with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in the capital, Nairobi, he has brought to bear satellite technology and 30 years of data on drought and herd losses in quest of a solution. . . .

‘This kind of ambition has attracted donors such as the UK and Australia, which have been willing to commit funds to educating herders about the benefits of insurance. Lisa Phillips, head of the UK Department for International Development in Kenya, who attended the payout ceremony, believes it is worth taking a punt on schemes that have the potential to break through ingrained poverty. “It’s cheaper than providing humanitarian assistance (after a drought),” she said. “We’re building resilience now to avoid spending loads of money later.”‘

Read the whole article by Daniel Howden in the Guardian‘s Global Development Blog: Kenya’s drought insurance scheme shelters herders from financial storm, 4 Apr 2014.

Read more about this insurance scheme and recent payout below.

ILRI Clippings Blog
Times Live (South Africa): Space tech provides Africa’s first Islamic insurance for herders, 1 Apr 2014

Business Daily (Kenya): Takaful, ILRI payout ‘sharia-compliant’ insurance to drought-suffering livestock herders in Wajir, 28 Mar 2014

Business Daily (Kenya): Pastoralists bank on index insurance to reduce losses, 26 Mar 2014

Watch a 2-minute video clip from Al Jazeera about the Wajir payout
New insurance scheme protects Kenyan farmers, 26 Mar 2014

Watch a 5-minute filmed interview by Roger Thurow on IBLI
Roger Thurow of the Chicago Council, interviews ILRI’s Andrew Mude, of IBLI, at the World Food Prize ceremonies in Iowa in Oct 2012, a Feed the Future Greenroom Interview, posted 28 Dec 2012.

Read ILRI’s press release about this on the ILRI News Blog
Africa’s first ‘Islamic-compliant’ livestock insurance pays 100 herders in Kenya’s remote drylands of Wajir for drought-related livestock losses, 25 Mar 2014

Visit related sites

ILRI website

IBLI Blog

BASIS: Assets and Market Assets

Index Insurance Innovation Initiative (I4)


Filed under: CRP11, Drought, Drylands, East Africa, Event, ILRI, ILRIComms, Insurance, Kenya, Launch, LGI, PA, Pastoralism Tagged: Australia, DFID, Guardian's Global Development Blog, IBLT, Takaful, UK

Kenya is hotspot for alfatoxin-related deaths–Report

‘The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has commissioned a research project that will ascertain the levels of aflatoxins in the milk consumed in Kenya.

‘Kenyans consume more than 145 litres of milk per person annually increasing the risks associated with milk-related aflatoxins.

Because of the higher milk consumption, especially by young children, pregnant and nursing women, Kenyans are likely to be more at risk from aflatoxin-contaminated milk than other Africans,’ said Johanna Lindahl, a food safety researcher at ILRI.

‘The research will determine the risks posed to such different groups of people by exposure to aflatoxin-contaminated milk. The project has been funded by the government of Finland.

‘Aflatoxin poisoning is produced by fungi Aspergillus, which infests grains such as maize and sorghum that have been badly stored under high moisture content. Consequently, the resultant contaminated feed leads to poisons getting into milk.

The presence of these toxins in food can harm human health and can be lethal in high doses. Kenya is among the world’s hotspots for aflatoxin-related deaths. . . .

‘Research conducted between February 2006 and March 2007 by the Department of Public Health Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Nairobi indicated high levels of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in samples of commercial feeds and milk respectively. . . .

‘In conclusion, the researchers, E. Kangeth’e and K. Langa’t, observed that there was the need to create awareness and establish routine monitoring of animal feeds and milk to reduce animal and consequently human response.’

Read the whole article by Mwangi Mumero in African Farming and Food ProcessingILRI research project to address milk poisoning in Kenya, 25 Feb 2014.

Read other news about this project
ILRI News Blog: ‘Bio-control’=effective control of aflatoxins poisoning Kenya’s staple food crops, 13 Feb 2014
ILRI News Blog: Dairy feed to reduce aflatoxin contamination in Kenya’s milk, 11 Feb 2014
ILRI News Blog: Australia-funded research fights aflatoxin contamination in East African foods, 6 Feb 2014
ILRI News Blog: Reducing aflatoxins in Kenya’s food chains: Filmed highlights from an ILRI media briefing, 18 Dec 2013
SciDevNet: Fungus strains, new tools ‘could help fight aflatoxins’, 6 Dec 2013
IRIN: How to stop a deadly fungus affecting billions, 25 Nov 2013
Daily Nation: Scientists develop research platform to fight aflatoxin, 25 Nov 2013

ILRI Media Briefs
Strengthening regional research capacity to improve food safety, ILRI Media Briefing 7, Nov 2013
Biological control of aflatoxins: Outcompeting harmful aflatoxin producers, ILRI Media Briefing 6, Nov 2013
Safer food through risk reduction of mycotoxins within the feed-dairy chain in Kenya—MyDairy, ILRI Media Briefing 5

IFPRI -2020-Agriculture for Nutrition and Health Briefs
Read a series of 19 briefs released Nov 2013 by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and its 2020 Vision initiative jointly with the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Health and Nutrition (A4NH), which is led by IFPRI, with a component on Agriculture-Associated Diseases led by Delia Grace, of ILRI. Grace co-edited the series of briefs, co-authored the overview (Tackling Aflatoxins) and wrote the brief on Animals and Aflatoxins. Two other ILRI scientists, Jagger Harvey and Benoit Gnonlonfin, of the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-ILRI Hub, in Nairobi, Kenya, are two of the authors of the brief on Improving Diagnostics for Aflatoxin Detection.

Full list
1. Tackling Aflatoxins: An Overview of Challenges and Solutions
by Laurian Unnevehr and Delia Grace (ILRI)

2. Aflatoxicosis: Evidence from Kenya
by Abigael Obura

3. Aflatoxin Exposure and Chronic Human Diseases: Estimates of Burden of Disease
by Felicia Wu

4. Child Stunting and Aflatoxins
by Jef L Leroy

5. Animals and Aflatoxins
by Delia Grace (ILRI)

6. Managing Mycotoxin Risks in the Food Industry: The Global Food Security Link
by David Crean

7. Farmer Perceptions of Aflatoxins: Implications for Intervention in Kenya
by Sophie Walker and Bryn Davies

8. Market-led Aflatoxin Interventions: Smallholder Groundnut Value Chains in Malawi
by Andrew Emmott

9. Aflatoxin Management in the World Food Programme through P4P Local Procurement
by Stéphane Méaux, Eleni Pantiora and Sheryl Schneider

10. Reducing Aflatoxins in Africa’s Crops: Experiences from the Aflacontrol Project
by Clare Narrod

11. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Aflatoxin Risk
by Felicia Wu

12. Trade Impacts of Aflatoxin Standards
by Devesh Roy

13. Codex Standards: A Global Tool for Aflatoxin Management
by Renata Clarke and Vittorio Fattori

14. The Role of Risk Assessment in Guiding Aflatoxin Policy
by Delia Grace (ILRI) and Laurian Unnevehr

15. Mobilizing Political Support: Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa
by Amare Ayalew, Wezi Chunga and Winta Sintayehu

16. Biological Controls for Aflatoxin Reduction
by Ranajit Bandyopadhyay and Peter J Cotty

17. Managing Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize: Developing Host Resistance
by George Mahuku, Marilyn L Warburton, Dan Makumbi and Felix San Vicente

18. Reducing Aflatoxins in Groundnuts through Integrated Management and Biocontrol
by Farid Waliyar, Moses Osiru, Hari Kishan Sudini and Samuel Njoroge

19. Improving Diagnostics for Aflatoxin Detection
by Jagger Harvey (BecA-ILRI Hub), Benoit Gnonlonfin (BecA-ILRI Hub), Mary Fletcher, Glen Fox, Stephen Trowell, Amalia Berna, Rebecca Nelson and Ross Darnell


Filed under: CRP4, East Africa, Feeds, Food Safety, Food Safety Zoonoses, Health (human), ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Kenya, PA, Project Tagged: aflatoxins, African Farming and Food Processing, Finland

Africa’s first Islamic insurance for herders

Takaful CEO Hassan Bashir in front of the new Takaful Insurance of Africa branch in Wajir

The son of a camel herder, Takaful CEO Hassan Bashir knows how tough traditional life in Kenya’s arid north is, where pastoralists rely on livestock herds surviving boom and bust cycles of drought (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

‘[Hassan] Bashir is also an astute entrepreneur, developing Africa’s first livestock insurance scheme to make payouts compliant with Islamic law, by bringing together Muslim scholars and number-crunching agricultural experts using NASA weather satellites.

‘”I’ve come from the community, and I understand its needs,” said Bashir, a sharp-suited businessman respectfully greeting elders dressed in traditional flowing robes in his hometown of Wajir, where goats and donkeys wander the dusty streets.

‘Bashir, 48, set up Takaful Insurance of Africa three years ago, which unlike ordinary insurance schemes prohibited by Islam, takes only a management fee from clients.

‘”It is a fair and ethical way to protect pastoralist’s livestock assets from natural hazards,” said Bashir, whose 80-year old father was one of the first to receive a payout this week for his herd of 50 cows.

‘Payments are assessed not according to deaths of individual animals as it would be impossible to provide proof, but according to an index drawn up by experts at the Nairobi-based International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), using satellites to measure vegetation coverage and thus the severity of drought.

The company is named after the Islamic concept of takaful, in which risks are shared among the community, rather than insurance where policy holders effectively gamble risks against the company.

Any surplus money after payments are made is distributed equally to remaining policy holders.

‘”It is a cooperative welfare basket for the community,” Bashir added, who was inspired to switch from regular insurance broking to the Islamic system after “hot discussions” with his family who refused his “unethical” money.

‘”I wanted to do something to develop the people here,” he said.

‘In 2011, fierce drought here in northeastern Kenya decimated herds with a devastating impact, and spiralled into famine in nearby war-torn Somalia.

‘Like elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, vast numbers of livestock are kept as a form of savings account. But these living investments face natural hazards. . . .

Takaful made the first payouts this week in Wajir to 100 policyholders. . . .

‘But the economic potential is also huge: here in Wajir country, a scrubland region where most live in traditional huts, government estimates value livestock at some $550 million (400 million euros).

Across Kenya, the pastoral livestock sector is valued at around $5 billion (3.5 billion euros).

‘Organisers — backed by some $6 million (4.5 million euros) from Australia, Britain and the European Commission — hope it can strengthen the ability of fragile communities across the region to cope during droughts, and reduce reliance on food aid.

‘”It is an innovative product with the possibility to replicate it elsewhere in Kenya and other nations,” Dominique Davoux from the European Commission said.

‘With few of the semi-nomadic people holding bank accounts, insurance premiums are even payable via mobile telephone money transfers using text messages.

‘Across the Horn of Africa, over 70 million people live in pastoralist areas, regional governments estimate, supplying some 90 percent of all meat.

The ILRI-designed system is already being taken up by insurers in other northern Kenyan regions and southern Ethiopia, totalling some 4,000 policyholders, with numbers growing. . . .

Read the whole article in Times Live (SouthAfrica) by the South Africa Press Association (Sapa)/Agence France Presse (AFP): Space tech provides Africa’s first Islamic insurance for herders, 1 Apr 2014

 


Filed under: CRP11, CRP7, Drought, Drylands, East Africa, Event, ILRI, ILRIComms, Insurance, Kenya, Launch, LGI, LSE, PA, Pastoralism Tagged: AFP, Australia, European Commission, IBLT, SAPA, Takaful, Times Live (South Africa), UK

East African dairy: Donors and stakeholders meet this week in Uganda to better coordinate their development work

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) visit to project sites, June 2011

ILRI scientist Steve Staal (in blue) and Gregg Bevier (right) of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), take a close look at a cowshed typical of Kenya’s smallholder dairy sector (photo credit: BMGF/Lee Klejtnot).

In its wisdom, an Inter-Agency Donor Group (IADG) on pro-poor livestock research and development agreed in 2013 to explore ways to better coordinate their investments in dairy development in East Africa.

The Netherlands, one of the IADG members, offered to take the lead in this and organized a study on commercializing dairy value chains in six countries — Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Results of the study are being discussed this week (1–3 Apr 2014) in an expert consultation being held in Uganda with stakeholders in the region’s dairy development, including policymakers, industry players and representatives from farm organizations, development agencies and research institutions.

Isabelle Baltenweck, an agricultural economist from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which is based in two of the targeted countries (ILRI is headquartered in Kenya and had a principal campus in Ethiopia), is a member of a ‘guiding group’ for this donor dairy collaboration project. Together, the members of the guiding group comprise a veritable ‘who’s who’ among donor agencies investing in East Africa’s agricultural development, representing, in addition to ILRI, the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Netherlands Government, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Centre for Development Innovation (CDI), of Wageningen UR (a university and research centre in the Netherlands that focusses on healthy food and living environment), serves as secretary to the guiding group.

This week’s consultation will prioritize actions to capitalize on the (big) development opportunities offered by this region’s booming dairy sector, and determine the roles best played by different actors among relevant donor agencies and within the public and private sectors.

This 2.5-day consultation is taking place in Mbarara, in Uganda’s southwestern region, where the discussions are being interspersed with visits to a ghee processing farm and a cultural dairy centre in addition to a dairy breeding centre and a few dairy farms, milk collection centres and cooperatives and milk processing plants.

This consultation is being organized by CDI, the Netherlands Embassy in Uganda, and local development partners from Agribusiness Initiative (aBi) Trust (a multi-donor entity founded by the governments of Denmark and Uganda), the BMGF-funded East African Dairy Development Project (EADD), GIZ and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV).

We will link here to news of the final study report, which will be made public some time after the conference closes.


Filed under: Burundi, Cattle, Dairying, East Africa, Ethiopia, Event, ILRI, ILRIComms, Kenya, LGI, PA, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Value Chains Tagged: aBi Trust, ACIAR, ASARECA, BMGF, EADD, FAO, GIZ, IFAD, Isabelle Baltenweck, SNV, USAID, Wageningen

Aflatoxins: New briefs disclose the threat to people and livestock and what research is doing about it

Improper maize cob for harvesting

A damaged maize cob that, if harvested with clean cobs, can contaminate all the cobs with aflatoxins (photo credit: Joseph Atehnkeng/IITA).

‘The UN World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that billions of people in the developing world are chronically exposed to aflatoxin, a natural poison on food crops which causes cancer, impairs the immune system, inhibits growth, and causes liver disease as well as death in both humans and animals.

According to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) aflatoxins contaminate one-quarter of the global food supply and over half the world’s population; 4.5 billion people are exposed to high, unmonitored levels, primarily in developing countries. In sub-Saharan African alone, an estimated 26,000 people die annually of liver cancer associated with aflatoxin exposure.

‘Aflatoxins not only pose serious health risks, but are believed to be detrimental to efforts to improve food security and international food trade.

‘According to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), an estimated 25 percent of the world’s food crops are affected by aflatoxins.

‘This briefing looks at some of the efforts to combat aflatoxins, as well as the remaining challenges.

Children harvesting groundnuts

Children harvest groundnuts in West Africa (photo credit: IITA).

‘Aflatoxins are a naturally occurring carcinogenic by-product of common fungi on grains and other crops, particularly maize and groundnuts. They are a kind of mycotoxin, a highly toxic product of moulds that occurs on almost all agricultural commodities worldwide.

‘Aflatoxins are one of the most potent naturally occurring toxic substances; they are produced by fungi known as Aspergillus flavus.

‘Aflatoxin is not always obvious, and even grains that appear normal could actually be infested with high levels of the toxin-producing fungus, which thrives under poor storage conditions.

While the presence of moulds might be an indicator of the toxin, “it is a highly imperfect indicator of aflatoxin contamination,” according to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. . . .

‘According to IFPRI, “Maize and peanuts are the main sources of human exposure to aflatoxin because they are so highly consumed worldwide.” Unfortunately, they are “the most susceptible crops to aflatoxin contamination.”. . .

ILRI aflatoxin research Johanna Lindahl, and IITA aflatoxin researcher Charity Mutegi

Aflatoxin researchers Johanna Lindahl, of ILRI, and Charity Mutegi, of IITA (photo credit: ILRI/Susan MacMillan).

‘Animal products such as milk and cheese, as well as cottonseed, spices and some feeds, are also prone to contamination from aflatoxins.

According to Johanna Lindahl, an epidemiologist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), “Very few know about the harm aflatoxins have on animals or even that animal food products can be contaminated with it as well.”

For instance, a study carried out in Nairobi by ILRI revealed that only 50 percent of those who had heard about aflatoxins believed it could be present in milk.

ILRI’s Lindahl, however, told IRIN that “milk and other dairy products can add to the total exposure of aflatoxin in humans,” and that it is necessary to accurately assess the risks.

Increased urbanization, coupled with an upsurge in urban livestock rearing, could increase the vulnerability of animals and animal products to aflatoxin contamination, said Lindahl.

‘When food crops are colonized by the fungi that produce aflatoxins in the field or during storage, they are rendered unsafe both for human and livestock consumption. . . .

Acute exposure to high levels of aflatoxins leads to aflatoxicosis, which can result in rapid death from liver failure.

According to IFPRI, “Aflatoxins pose both acute and chronic risks to health.

‘Aflatoxin contamination has also been associated with childhood stunting.

Erastus Kangethe, food safety expert at the University of Nairobi, told IRIN, “It would be detrimental to ignore the long-term effects of aflatoxin, because unless we can control it, then we are going to witness a generation of stunted population very soon.”. . .

Farmer displays aflasafe box

A farmer in Nigeria Farmer displays aflasafe (photo credit: Joseph Atehnkeng/IITA).

‘There are bio-control studies taking place in various African countries to help combat aflatoxin contamination in crops and animal products. Biological methods such as aflasafe — a biological control agent against aflatoxins — have shown to be effective.

In Nigeria, where field testing of aflasafe has already been done, Charity Mutegi, a scientist at the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), told IRIN, “The efficacy results have been very positive. Aflatoxin contamination was reduced by between 80 to 90 percent both in maize and in groundnuts.”

According to the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), “Aflasafe works by ‘pushing out’ harmful, toxin-producing strains of A. flavus (the aflatoxin-causing fungi) from the field, through the deliberate introduction of indigenous but non-toxic, harmless strains — a process known as ‘competitive exclusion’.”

‘Apart from Nigeria, other African countries carrying out bio-control research include Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Already, aflatoxin bio-control laboratory infrastructure has been created in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Zambia. . . .

‘The lack of knowledge about aflatoxin detection among smallholders and the absence of widely available detection tools remain some of the biggest challenges in the control of aflatoxins. . . .

‘Experts have recommended more investments in scientific research to develop aflatoxin-resistant crop varieties, and say there is a need to create awareness among farmers about its dangers and how to detect the fungal poison. . . .

Read the whole article at IRIN: Briefing: How to stop a deadly fungus affections billions, 25 Nov 2013.

Read 19 briefs on aflatoxins published on 5 Nov 2013. The briefs were co-edited by Laurian Unnevehr, senior research fellow at IFPRI and theme leader for value chains for enhanced nutrition in the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), and Delia Grace, veterinary epidemiologist and food safety expert at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and theme leader for agriculture-associated diseases in A4NH.

Access the individual research briefs
Download the full set of research briefs (PDF)

View a short filmed interview of Delia Grace (ILRI/A4NH)) and John McDermott (IFPRI/A4NH) on aflatoxins.

Read more about ILRI’s research projects on aflatoxins:
Capacity and action for aflatoxin reduction in eastern Africa
Measuring and mitigating the risk of mycotoxins in maize and dairy products for poor consumers in Kenya

Visit AgHeatlh, ILRI’s blog on Prevention and Control of Agriculture-associated Diseases.


Filed under: Agri-Health, Animal Feeding, Animal Health, Animal Products, BecA, Burkina Faso, CRP4, Dairying, Disease Control, Epidemiology, Film and video, Food Safety, Food Safety Zoonoses, Ghana, Health (human), ILRI, ILRIComms, Kenya, Launch, Mali, Nigeria, PA, Project, Senegal, Tanzania Tagged: Aflasafe, aflatoxins, CGIAR, Charity Mutegi, CIMMYT, Delia Grace, Erastus Kang'ethe, FAO, IFPRI, IITA, IRIN, Johanna Lindahl, Laurian Unnevehr, University of Nairobi, WHO, Zambia

Uganda: Where a pig in the backyard is a piggybank for one million households–and rising

Curious pig in Uganda raised for sale

This curious pig in Kiboga District, Uganda, will be sold in about 2 months and generate between 100,000 to 150,000 Ugandan shillings (USD40) for the household (photo credit: ILRI/Kristina Rösel).

‘Uganda is the leading consumer of pork in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

‘Over 2.3 million pigs are kept by one million households in Uganda for consumption, says the institute which further indicates that the majority of pigs are kept by women in smallholder households.

‘Pig rearing has become a popular and a lucrative venture in Uganda over the last 30 years.

The institute, which works to improve food security and reduce poverty in developing countries, says the local pig population has climbed from 190,000 to over 2.3 million in the three decades. . . .

Researchers from ILRI – whose headquarters are in Nairobi, Kenya – are conducting two projects in Uganda.

‘The projects are targeted at presenting more efficient ways of raising pigs, safer ways of handling and selling pork, and ways to increase access to pig markets by poor farmers.’

More information from ILRI about this project
‘Pig farming is widely practiced in all regions of Uganda with high concentrations around the Central region. Unlike other key agricultural enterprises, pig farming has experienced fundamental improvement in the number of pigs reared and households that rear at least one pig over the last three decades. This has been possible despite the limited government support to the pig subsector and the fact that pigs are not considered among the 20 priority sub-programs of the country’s Agricultural Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan (DSIP). This notwithstanding, about 17.8% (i.e. 1.1 millions) of all households own at least one pig in Uganda. The number of pigs increased from 0.19 million in 1980 to 3.2 million in 2008.

‘The current daily consumption of pigs (pigs slaughtered per day) in Kampala city alone is estimated to be between 300 and 500. These include about 75-80 pigs that are slaughtered at the main pig abattoir of Wambizi cooperative society in Nalukolongo in Kampala city. The per capita consumption of pork is 3.4 kg/person/year, the highest in the region. This level of consumption is reported to have increased 10 times more than it used to be 30 years ago. The market for pig products along the pig value chain is however disorganized, has many value chain actors, and many service providers, whose activities are not well coordinated. . . .

‘The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) through its Kampala based office is implementing an IFAD funded Smallholder Pig Value Chains Development (SPVCD) project in Uganda. The main objective of the SPVCD project is to improve livelihoods, incomes, and assets of smallholder pig producers, particularly women. . . . This report documents potential best-bet interventions (BBI) that can be tested in pilot research areas for the SPVCD project.’— Read more in this report: Successes and failures of institutional innovations to improve access to services, input and output markets for smallholder pig production systems and value chains in Uganda, published by ILRI Aug 2013.

Read the whole news article in New Vision (Uganda): Uganda ‘top pork consumer in sub-Saharan Africa’, 29 Mar 2014.

Watch a short (2:40-minute) ILRI photofilm on its smallholder pig value chains research in Uganda: Smallholder pig farming in Uganda: A day in the life of a research for development project,

View slide presentations by Uganda-based ILRI research project manager Danilo Pezo: Smallholder pig value chains in Uganda, Jun 2013, and  Smallholder pig value chain development in Uganda, Mar 2012.


Filed under: ASSP, CRP37, CRP4, East Africa, Food Safety, Food Safety Zoonoses, ILRI, ILRIComms, PA, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains Tagged: New Vision (Uganda)

Takaful, ILRI payout ‘sharia-compliant’ insurance to drought-suffering livestock herders in Wajir

A beneficiary of Takaful insurance in Wajir

Shamsa Kosar, a beneficiary of Takaful livestock insurance payouts made in Wajir, northern Kenya, in March 2014. This novel insurance was made possible by an ILRI index-based livestock insurance research project in northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia (photo credit: ILRI/Riccardo Gangale).

‘Takaful Insurance will pay livestock farmers about Sh500,000 for losses incurred during the December to March dry season.

‘The farmers, 30 women and 71 men from Wajir County, are the first to be compensated after they took up the Shariah-compliant Index-Based Livestock Takaful (IBLT) cover in August 2013. . . .

‘The insurer said its focus is to make the Shariah-based policy more popular.

Our goal is to show pastoralists that they can use a fair and ethical business model to protect their assets from a natural hazard of keeping livestock in East Africa,” said Takaful Insurance chief executive Hassan Bashir.

‘Takaful makes revenues through management fees and pays out any surpluses made.

‘The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which was part of the team that designed the policy, also said that the popularity of the package is the priority at the moment.

This payout is critical for building confidence in the concept of insurance for drought-prone regions of East Africa where life revolves around livestock and droughts can bring disaster,” said Andrew Mude who leads the IBLI programme at ILRI.

‘ILRI estimates that livestock farmers in northern Kenya have cows, goats and sheep worth Sh46 billion. Cornell University and the Index Insurance Innovation Initiative (I4) at the University of California at Davis are the other partners in the project.

‘The World Bank has also shown interest in the livestock industry. The lender has set aside a Sh6.7 billion grant for building infrastructure meant to reduce risks for Kenyan livestock farmers. The bank estimates that the Eastern Africa region has a livestock population of between 12 to 22 million.’

Read the whole article at Business Daily (Kenya): Insurer to compensate livestock farmers​, 24 Mar 2014

Read other news clippings:
Business Daily (Kenya): Pastoralists bank on index insurance to reduce losses, 26 Mar 2014

Watch a 2-minute video clip from Al Jazeera about the payout, New insurance scheme protects Kenyan farmers, 26 Mar 2014

Read ILRI’s press release about this on the ILRI News Blog:
Africa’s first ‘Islamic-compliant’ livestock insurance pays 100 herders in Kenya’s remote drylands of Wajir for drought-related livestock losses, 25 Mar 2014


Filed under: CRP7, Drought, Drylands, East Africa, Event, ILRI, ILRIComms, Insurance, Kenya, Launch, LGI, PA, Pastoralism Tagged: Andrew Mude, Business Daily, Cornell University, IBLI, IBLT, Index Insurance Innovation Initiative, Takaful Insurance, World Bank

Are aflatoxins contaminating the milk you’re drinking in Kenya? New research to find out

Kenyan boy drinking milk

‘The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has commissioned research to ascertain the levels of aflatoxins in the milk consumed in Kenya.

Studies say every Kenyan consumes over 145 litres annually – higher than other Africans – increasing the risk of milk-related aflatoxins.

‘“Because of the higher milk consumption, especially by young children, pregnant and nursing women, Kenyans are likely to be more at risk from aflatoxin-contaminated milk than other Africans,” says Johanna Lindahl, a food safety researcher at ILRI.

‘This research will determine the risks by exposure to aflatoxin-contaminated milk. The project is funded by the Government of Finland.

‘Aflatoxin poisoning is produced by fungi Aspergillus that infests grain such as maize and sorghum that are badly stored under higher moisture content. Consequently, the resultant contaminated feed lead to poisons getting to milk.

DSC_1257

‘Presence of these toxins in food that can harm human health and be lethal in high doses.

Kenya, in East Africa, is one of the world’s hotspots for aflatoxin-related deaths . . . .

Read the whole article by Mwangi Mumero in The People (Kenya): Kenyans could be drinking poisoned milk, 20 Feb 2014.

Read other articles in this topic on the ILRI News Blog:

Reducing aflatoxins in Kenya’s food chains: Filmed highlights from an ILRI media briefing, 19 Dec 2013

Fighting aflatoxins: CGIAR scientists Delia Grace and John McDermott describe the disease threats and options for better control, 8 Nov 2013

 


Filed under: Cattle, CRP4, Dairying, Disease Control, East Africa, Feeds, Food Safety, Food Safety Zoonoses, Health (human), ILRI, ILRIComms, Kenya, PA, Value Chains Tagged: aflatoxins, Johanna Lindahl, The People (Kenya)

On the making of a report card (SDGs) on a report card (MDGs) on the world’s (unfinished) development agenda

‘Leptosome: A person with a slender, thin, or frail body’ (The Project Twins)

This graphic art is from the A-Z of Unusual Words project, a series of works exhibited during Design Week Dublin 2011 and featured in various blogs and magazines; prints are available from an online shop of The Project Twins, a graphic art studio.)

‘Next week will see a key event related to the process to envision the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Government officials will gather in New York for a meeting of the Open Working Group to debate ideas in 19 different areas, including food and nutrition security. By mid-summer, this group will make recommendations to the United Nations General Assembly about a possible next set of development goals for adoption in 2015.

‘Since they were established in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have become a report card for how the world is performing against major problems affecting the poor, and they have helped to drive unprecedented progress for those living in extreme poverty. This progress is real; the MDG aimed at halving the proportion of people living in extreme poverty has been reached ahead of the deadline, as has the goal of halving the proportion of people who lack access to safe drinking water. . . .

‘. . . [T]hree fourths of the poorest people depend on agriculture for their nutrition and income. But degraded natural resources, limited access to services, information and technology and continual shocks, including severe weather events, are making it hard for these farmers to grow enough food to feed and provide for their families. . . .

‘At the broadest level, we recommend a focus on eliminating hunger by increasing sustainable agricultural productivity. . . . We believe that this should be done in such a way that empowers smallholder farmers, particularly women, protects the environment, and addresses nutritional needs, particularly those of women and children. . . .

We are concerned not only with growing more food while using fewer resources but also with what will be grown, how it will used and whether it will leave us all better off. This is no small task, so what we choose as a goal and the targets that we use to track it are critical.

‘We believe that ‘sustainability’ must be embedded into the post-2015 agenda. . . . Only by acting and thinking holistically will we be able to preserve any progress that we make on food security and nutrition. . . .’

Read the whole opinion piece by Pamela Anderson and Josh Lozman published in the Impatient Optimists Blog of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Food Security and Nutrition and the Post-2015 Development Goals, 24 Mar 2014.


Filed under: Agriculture, Event, Food security, ILRIComms, Impact Assessment, Nutrition, PA Tagged: BMGF, Impatient Optimists Blog, MDGs, Pamela Anderson, SDGs

Vietnam’s household livestock farming set for growth

Young water buffalo and rice fields; Mai Chau, Vietnam

Young water buffalo and rice fields in Mai Chau (an ethnic Thai village), in Hoa Binh Province, northwest Vietnam. Household livestock production is set to become the leading form of livestock production in the country (photo on Flickr by Lon&Queta).

‘Household livestock production should be developed to reach a larger scale and higher professional level, participants agreed at a meeting on developing household livestock production on Thursday, in Ha Noi.

‘Addressing the meeting, Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Vu Van Tam stated that household livestock production would be the leading form of livestock production in the country in the upcoming years. The objective of the meeting was to discuss policies needed for supporting the sector in the period 2014-2020.

‘Currently, there are some 12 million households in the country involved in livestock production.

‘Thus, a decision by the Prime Minister on such policies was of great importance as it encouraged the improvement of household livestock production by increasing productivity and lowering the prices of products, noted Nguyen Thanh Son, the director of the [National Institute of Animal Sciences] under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

The draft document by the ministry focuses on offering support to the farmers in areas related to breeding, veterinary, animal feed production, and livestock raising environment. The farmers will also be assisted in establishing chain products and commercial promotion. Training will also be provided to the farmers.

‘Those eligible for such support are households who raise livestock at a scale smaller than that of a farm according to criteria set by the ministry.

‘It is expected that once approved, the document will help tackle all the existing problems of the livestock production sector, including small scale production, low productivity, epidemics, and environmental pollution. The issue of low competitiveness will also be addressed.

‘According to the draft, farmers will receive a certain amount of money if they want to buy breeding livestock and can get their livestock vaccinated for free, which will protect them from certain kinds of epidemics. They will also receive financial support for building biogas tanks for animal waste treatment. . . .

Read the whole article at Viet Nam News: Household livestock farming set for growth, 15 Mar 2014.


Filed under: Animal Production, CRP37, Event, ILRIComms, Intensification, MarketOpps, Markets, PA, Policy, PTVC, Southeast Asia, Value Chains, Vietnam Tagged: Viet Nam News

What livestock eat (and don’t eat) determines how productive, and efficient, they are–PNAS study

Napier Grass

Napier grass (aka ‘elephant grass’), a major feed supplement for dairy cows and other ruminant animals in Kenya (photo credit: Jeff Haskins).

Even though research has shown that [greenhouse gas] GHG emissions from the Western world far outweigh those from the developing world, livestock keeping methods in Africa are increasingly becoming a key subject.

Europe, North America and Latin America are at the epicentre of beef production, with each region producing about 12 to 14 million tonnes per year. By comparison, all of sub-Saharan Africa produces less than five million tonnes of beef annually.

A new study shows ‘that most livestock in the developed world consume feeds of higher quality in form of concentrates and grains, compared to developing nations where livestock rely mainly on low quality natural pastures and crop residues. . . .

A recent International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) study titled Biomass Use, Production, Feed efficiencies and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Livestock Systems established that the high emissions from livestock were linked to poor livestock management on the continent.

‘An Notenbaert, one of the study’s authors, notes that the factors contributing to this level of emissions are the same ones impeding livestock production and slowing down development in Africa. . . .

“Such studies provide opportunities for countries to identify gaps in their livestock production systems and address those challenges to foster economic growth,” states Dr Notenbaert [a livestock expert who did this work at ILRI and has since moved to the International Center for Tropical Agriculture] . . . .

‘The study shows that most livestock in the developed world consume feeds of higher quality in form of concentrates and grains, compared to developing nations where livestock rely mainly on low quality natural pastures and crop residues.

As such, a cow in North America or Europe likely consumes about 75 to 300 kilogrammes of dry feed to produce a kilogramme of meat protein. But in sub-Saharan Africa, a cow might require between 500 and 2,000 kilogrammes of feed to produce the same amount of meat protein.

‘Dr Notenbaert notes that the quality of feeds consumed by animals determine to a large extent their productivity and amount of GHG emissions they will release into the atmosphere.

‘Thus cattle grazing on low quality pastures in arid lands of sub-Saharan Africa can release the equivalent of 1,000 kilogrammes of carbon dioxide for every kilogramme of protein that they produce whereas the emission intensity in Europe and the US is around 10 kilogrammes of carbon dioxide for very kilogramme of protein produced. . . .

‘Animals take much longer to digest low quality feeds and as a result release more methane and carbon dioxide gas that cause global warming.

‘In Kenya, livestock contributes 10 per cent of the total gross domestic product.

‘Moreover, in the arid and semi arid lands occupying more than 70 per cent of the country, the livestock sector accounts for about 90 per cent of family incomes, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation.

But Kenya’s population is still growing and if livestock yields remain low, it will compromise government’s ability to adequately feed citizens and guarantee food security in the country, says Dr Notenbaert. . . .

Read the whole article by Sarah Ooko in Business Daily (Kenya): Poor livestock management blamed for increased greenhouse gas emissions in Africa, 21 Feb 2014.

Read the ILRI News Blog story on this study, which was published as part of a series of article on ‘livestock and global change’ in a special feature of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) (this issue was edited by Mario Herrero, who did this work at ILRI and is now at the Commonwealth, Scientific, Industrial Research Organisation [CSIRO], in Australia):
As livestock eat, so they emit: Highly variable diets drive highly variable climate change ‘hoofprints’–BIG new study, 17 Dec 2013


Filed under: Animal Production, Article, Climate Change, CRP7, Environment, Food security, ILRI, ILRIComms, Integrated Sciences, Kenya, Livestock Systems, LivestockFutures, LSE, PA, Policy Tagged: An Notenbaert, Business Daily, CSIRO, Greenhouse gas emissions, Mario Herrero, PNAS

Declan McKeever–’Veterinary Record’ tribute to gifted ILRI/ILRAD scientist by Ross Gray and Ivan Morrison

Peter Doherty (left) and Declan McKeever (right) at ILRAD

Peter Doherty (left, Nobel Laureate and head of the program committee of the ILRAD board of trustees) and Declan McKeever (right) at ILRAD in the 1990s (photo credit: ILRI).

In a further tribute to Declan James McKeever (Veterinary Record, February 15, 2014, vol 174, pp 176-177), who died in the UK on 23 January 2014 following illness, Ivan Morrison and Ross Gray write the following.

Declan McKeever was a highly gifted and productive veterinary scientist, who made major contributions to our knowledge of a number of diseases that continue to impair livestock production in Africa.

‘Immediately following completion of his PhD at the Moredun Research Institute in 1986, he joined the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD, now ILRI) in Nairobi, which at that time had a vibrant multinational research environment, free of bureaucratic constraints. Declan thrived in this environment (not everyone did) and quickly established himself as an independent researcher, eventually progressing to become senior scientist and then project coordinator for immunology and antigen delivery in the reformed ILRI. During the 12 years he spent in Kenya, he also developed a strong empathy for the African people and the problems that afflict their livestock, which was to have an important influence throughout his subsequent career.

‘Declan’s work in Kenya was focussed on defining protective immune mechanisms deployed by cattle against vector-borne pathogens, with the aim of exploiting this knowledge for vaccine development. An important aspect of his initial work was the establishment of lymphatic cannulation techniques in calves to facilitate studies of the early events in induction of immune responses in vivo. In collaboration with numerous colleagues, these techniques were employed to investigate immunity to Theileria parva, Trypanosoma congolense and Cowdria ruminantium. He carried out pioneering studies on the phenotype and function of the dendritic cells found in bovine afferent lymph, demonstrating their potent antigen-presenting capacity and identifying phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of these cells using cell surface markers developed in ILRAD.

‘At the time, this work was at the forefront of dendritic cell biology, preceding by a number of years similar observations in other species. His work on the cellular responses to T. parva was instrumental in gaining an understanding the cellular basis of immunity to this parasite. . . . Declan also added to the Laboratory’s broad repertoire of immunological skills by introducing projects on live recombinant viral and bacterial delivery systems and DNA vaccines. The results of his research helped to lay the foundations for subsequent work on identification of T. parva antigens and the current effort on vaccine development. . . .

Altogether he was a highly effective contributor to ILRAD/ILRI’s generic capacity for development work on ruminant vaccines. . . . At the time of his death he was looking forward to participating in an international research consortium on vaccine development for T. parva, funded by the Gates Foundation as part of a major new initiative on veterinary vaccines. . . .

Subscribers to the Veterinary Record can read the whole (fine) tribute by Ross Gray, former director general of ILRAD (1982–1994), now retired; and Ivan Morrison, former ILRAD program leader for research on East Coast fever (1975–1989), now group leader at the Roslin Institute, here (15 Feb 2014, vol 174, pp 176–177).

Read ILRI’s tribute on the ILRI News Blog:
Declan McKeever: ILRI and ILRAD lose a friend, with a personal tribute by Brian Perry, 24 Jan 2014.


Filed under: Africa, Animal Health, Disease Control, ECF, ILRI, Kenya, PA, Staff, Trypanosomiasis, UK, Vaccines Tagged: Declan McKeever, ILRAD, Ivan Morrison, Ross Gray

Livestock Matter(s): ILRI news ’roundup’ February 2014

 ILRI News Round-up banner
This February 2014  issue of ‘Livestock Matter(s)’ presents a round-up of livestock development news, publications, presentations, images and upcoming events from ILRI and its partners. Sign up to get Livestock Matter(s) in your mailbox each month.

Corporate news

ILRI news blog gets a makeover
In February, the ILRI news services moved to a new address – http://news.ilri.org/ – and a new look. The former news site content remains accessible.

East African Dairy Development project phase two launched
The East African Dairy Development (EADD) project received a grant of USD25.5 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to expand its operation in a second five-year phase, from 2014 to 2018, and to scale up the impact from phase one, implemented from 2008 to 2013.

Consortium to tackle East Coast fewer in cattle in Africa
The Nairobi-based International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) announced today that a global consortium supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been formed to develop a new vaccine against a disease that’s devastating cattle herds in sub-Saharan Africa.

Innovation platforms in agricultural research
Innovation platforms are widely used in agricultural research to connect different stakeholders to achieve common goals. To help document recent experiences and insights, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) recently published a series of short innovation platform ‘practice briefs’ to help guide the design and implementation of innovation platforms in agricultural research for development.

Sustainable livestock: What are the options?
January’s Global Forum for Food and Agriculture (GFFA) was the venue for a panel session on sustainable livestock organized as part of the Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock. The session was run as a facilitated discussion, engaging both a panel of five experts and the 80 or so participants attending.

Project news

Australia-funded research fights aflatoxin contamination in East African foods
Across East Africa, more than 100 million people depend on maize as a staple food. Sorghum and groundnuts are other vital sources of food here. But maize, sorghum and groundnuts are susceptible to accumulation of aflatoxins, chemicals produced by a fungus that are toxic when eaten. These chemicals can cause cancer, are lethal in high doses, and may suppress immune systems, reduce nutrient absorption and stunt the development of infants.

Producing green fodder from wheat helps animals and people in India’s Uttarakhand State
In the hilly areas of Uttarakhand, a typical farming household has one or two cows, one buffalo and a bullock, and cultivates cereals and vegetables on tiny terraced plots. Livestock make important contributions to livelihoods but providing sufficient feed for them continues to remain a challenge, especially during the winter months. A research brief describes how a simple new technique using new varieties of cereals as dual purpose crops can provide nutritious green fodder to animals when it is most needed – with no detrimental impact on the eventual grain and straw yields.

AgInvest Africa web tool launched to map and track agricultural interventions in Africa
The Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System for Eastern and Central Africa (ReSAKSS-ECA) based at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, recently launched a web portal on mapping and tracking of agriculture investments in Africa.

Prevention of Classical Swine Fever – an impact narrative from Northeast India
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious, poten­tially fatal viral disease caused by positive sense RNA virus affecting pigs of all ages It is endemic in Northeast In­dia. A research brief describes how 1.5 million pig rearing households can ben­efit from actions by the government that will produce adequate quantities of the CSF vaccine and launch a CSF control program with special focus on Northeast India.

Ugandans and pork: A story that needs telling
largely unknown or under-appreciated is that Africa’s pig sector is growing rapidly, with the highest increases in pig populations occurring in Uganda, where the national pig population has grown, remarkably, from just 0.19 million animals 30 years ago to 3.2 million animals today.

Using science to preserve culture in Rwanda
Traditional culture and science often seem to be worlds apart, but for Theogen Rutagwenda, the director general for animal resources in the Rwandan government, the two mix as naturally as salt and food.

more from ILRI projects

ILRI in the media Maasai boy with cows vaccinated against East Coast fever

A Maasai boy with his cattle wearing ear tags, designating that they have been immunized against East Coast fever in Tanzania (photo credit: ILRI/Lieve Lynen).

Nigeria, others to save $4.63bn annually by adopting cassava feed
The use of cassava-based feeds for farm animals in Nigeria and other countries in Africa will bring several benefits, including a reduction of maize imports mostly used as feeds for livestock, according to the Country Representative for the Ibadan based International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Dr Iheanacho Okike.

Better livestock diets to combat climate change and improve food security
Livestock production is responsible for 12% of human-related greenhouse gas emissions, primarily coming from land use change and deforestation caused by expansion of agriculture, as well as methane released by the animals themselves, with a lesser amount coming from manure management and feed production.

Partnership focuses on developing East Coast fever vaccine
A vaccine that protects cattle against East Coast fever, a destructive disease in eastern and central Africa, is being developed by scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Kenya.

Connectivity and emerging infectious diseases in Southeast Asia
Experts sometimes describe Southeast Asia as a “hotspot” for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) because several major outbreaks have started in this region. Now, with unprecedented levels of connection between animals and people through urbanization, and of people with other people through increased air travel, scientists say the threat level for new diseases is high.

CGIAR news – updates from research programs involving ILRI

cgiar logo

ILRI to lead pilot study on livestock identification and traceability system for IGAD region
A livestock identification and traceability system will soon be piloted in the Intergovernmental Agency on Development region, following discussions at a workshop held last week (4-5 February) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to review existing national systems and identify practical options towards a harmonized system for the region.

Egyptian aquaculture innovation platform plans for further growth in the sector
Stakeholders from Egypt’s $1.5 billion aquaculture industry came together in Cairo this week to discuss future development of the sector.

Uganda pig value chain partnership with private sector raises sector profile
The Uganda Daily Monitor yesterday published an article on a two-day training organized by the Pig Production and Marketing Ltd Uganda, to chart the way forward on how to develop the pig industry. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Uganda team including two graduate students and one national partner was among the invitees who also provided training to the pig farmers present at the event held on 14-15 February 2014.

Recent presentations

This month we feature a presentation by Amos Omore, on ‘Creating a livestock sector with global competitor advantages in East Africa’:

Recent ILRI publications Multimedia

Battling an African cattle killer: Second-generation vaccine against East Coast fever
In this film, Vish Nene director of the Vaccines Biosciences program at ILRI, talks about new research that is seeking to create a second-generation vaccine against East Coast fever.

ILRI under the lens

This month we feature  ILRI management team members

Suzanne Bertrand

Suzanne Bertrand, ILRI deputy director general, biosciences (photo credit: ILRI/Stevie Mann).

How well do you know them?, Read their profiles here

Upcoming events Staff updates

In February, we welcomed the following new staff:

  • David Opar, research technician, IRRI
  • Daisy Kariuki, program accountant- Biosciences
  • Monica Njuguna, laboratory procurement assistant – BecA-ILRI hub
  • Jennifer Kinuthia, administrative assistant, capacity development
  • Juliah Mbaya, administrative clerk
  • Julius Githinji, research technician – Livelihoods, Gender and Impact
  • Phelister Mujeu,lifeguard – Human Resources
  • Naftaly Githaka, tick unit support officer
  • Haron Mugo Ng’ang’a, ICT
  • Nicholas Mwenda, ICT
  • Diana Muia, ICT
  • Mary Wangari, human resources assistant
  • Joseph Njoroge, HR
  • Clement Musyoka, research technician
  • Aziz Karimov, scientist, value chains, Vietnam
  • Todd Crane, scentist, climate adaptation
  • Catherine Pfeifer, spatial analyst
  • Edgar Twine, post doctoral scientists, value chains, Tanzania
  • Josephine Birungi, technology manager
  • Melakamu Dershe, post doctoral scientist, feeds
  • Franklin Simtowe, monitoring and evaluation learning scientist
  • John Goopy, scientist, mitigation of greenhouse gases
  • Tunde Adegoke Amole, post doctoral scientist, feeds

We said farewell to:

  • Sylvester Ochieng Ogutu, research assistant
  • Harrison Ikunga Rware, research technician
  • Elizabeth Ogutu, Liaison Officer
  • Alexandra Jorge, Forages genebank

Filed under: ILRI, ILRIComms, Livestock, PA Tagged: Roundup

Vaccine cliff-hanger (‘parasite page-turner’) on Gates’ blog

The Moschophoros (calf-bearer), archaic statue, 570 BC, Acropolis Museum.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation blog, Impatient Optimists, is running a piece about ‘an unusual story . . . unfolding in Africa, where the battle against a cattle-killing disease called East Coast fever is quickly becoming a cliff-hanger.’

The article is written by Jimmy Smith, director general of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which is based in Nairobi, Kenya, and works worldwide to reduce poverty, hunger and environmental degradation through better livestock livelihoods.

Here’s an excerpt:

‘It’s a story about hunger and poverty and the central role of livestock in the diets, economies and cultures of developing countries. And it’s a story about a creative group of scientists waging a decades-long battle against East Coast fever and coming up with novel solutions, like a vaccine made of ground-up infected ticks.

‘The latest installment is just now being written. So far, it involves many of these same scientists launching a consortium last week at my institute, in Nairobi, Kenya, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. This consortium is devoted to making a new and better vaccine for the disease, one that involves a compelling plot twist, as it could link the fate of poor livestock keepers in Africa to that of cancer and malaria victims the world over.

‘The central protagonist in this drama is a single-celled parasite called Theileria parva that’s carried by a common tick and now threatens the lives of tens of millions of cattle in Africa, with the more productive breeds proving particularly vulnerable. . . .

‘Clearly, a lot is riding on the outcome of this story—particularly as the narrative now involves conflict-ridden South Sudan, where the disease is now endemic and threatens to spread to the troubled Central African Republic to the west and the great cattle-keeping communities of Ethiopia to the east. . . .’

This East Coast fever vaccine project is supported by a USD11-million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (USA), with additional support coming from partners in a new consortium established to battle this African cattle killing disease. These partners/investors include the Centre for Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (Malawi); GALVmed, a livestock-oriented non-profit product development partnership (UK); the Institute for Genome Sciences (University of Maryland, USA); the Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp (Belgium); the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); the Roslin Institute (University of Edinburgh, UK); the Royal Veterinary College (UK); the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS); and Washington State University (USA).

Read the whole article by Jimmy Smith on the BMGF Impatient Optimists blog: Parasite page-turner: Africa’s battle with a cattle killer takes new, unexpected turns, 3 Feb 3014.

If you’re visiting the Impatient Optimists blog, you might also check out this post: The miracle of vaccines (and our New Year resolution), 16 Dec 2013.


Filed under: Africa, Animal Diseases, BioSciences, Biotechnology, CRP37, Directorate, Disease Control, ECF, ILRI, ILVAC, Opinion piece, PA, USA, Vaccines Tagged: BMGF, CTTBD, GALVmed, Impatient Optimists, Institute for Genome Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Jimmy Smith, Roslin Institute, RVC, USDA-ARS, Washington State University

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