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New tools to reduce conflict over natural resources

Program news CGIAR research program on aquatic agricultural systems -

Conflict over environmental resources is increasingly a threat to rural people’s livelihoods. Building dialogue among competing groups to manage resource conflict is the challenge addressed in a new suite of resources under the banner Collaborating for Resilience.

The publications use experiences from Asia and Africa to illustrate how to launch innovations that reduce the risk of social conflict, and strengthen institutions for equitable environmental governance.

Resource conflict can easily escalate thus investing in capacities for conflict management is an important tool in helping to identify and manage risks. Lessons learned and captured in the policy briefs, program reports and manuals available from the website aim to empower practitioners, researchers, and policy stakeholders working to address this challenge.

Blake Ratner, Research Director, WorldFish: “Climate change, land scarcity, and the demands of agricultural intensification mean that conflict is an increasingly crucial issue to address in natural resource management. These reports outline how structured multi-stakeholder dialogue approaches can help communities gain a voice in resource management planning, access their legal rights, and identify innovations that support local livelihoods.”

Alexander Carius, Managing Director, adelphi: “This work is important because it moves us from analysis of the problems to a strong engagement in working with local actors – farmers, fishers, government agencies, civil society groups, and investors – in finding solutions. Using these resources, we’re advocating for governments and development agencies to integrate collaborative dialogue about environmental resources into program and policy implementation.”

Examples of successful innovations highlighted include enhanced community negotiations; new and successful engagement with private investors; influence on government priorities in addressing the needs of local communities and engaging new sources of support to scale out innovations including UN agencies and national Ministries.

The Collaborating for Resilience website also includes video case studies from Lake Kariba, Zambia; Tonle Sap, Cambodia and Lake Victoria, Uganda. The suite of resources is provided under a partnership including the CGIAR Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems; adelphi; and the CGIAR Research Program on Policies Institutions and Markets; with the financial support of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development.                     

About AAS

AAS, the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems is a multi-year research initiative designed to pursue community-based approaches to agricultural research in farming and fishing systems where the annual production dynamics of natural freshwater and/or coastal ecosystems contribute significantly to the household livelihood, including income and food security. At a global level, AAS is led by WorldFish on behalf of CGIAR together with International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and Bioversity International.

About CGIAR

CGIAR is a global agriculture research partnership for a food secure future. Its science is carried out by the 15 research centers that are members of the CGIAR Consortium in collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations.

About adelphi

adelphi is a leading think tank for policy analysis and strategy consulting. The institution offers creative solutions and services regarding global environment and development challenges for policy, business, and civil society communities. The projects contribute to sustaining natural life systems and fostering sustainable enterprises. adelphi´s clients include international organisations, governments, public institutions, corporations, and associations.

www.adelphi.de

 

For more information or request for interview:

Contact: Toby Johnson, Senior Media Relations Manager

Mobile Tel: +60 175 124 606

Email: t.johnson@cgiar.org

Web: worldfishcenter.org

Photography: flickr.com/photos/theworldfishcenter/

Study suggests major gender differences in access to fertile land and agriculture support

CRP 7 News -

Food production, climate change and gender. An inter-linked and deeply intriguing research combination that, despite genuine efforts, we still know very little about.

Lack of evidence on how men and women farmers are differently impacted by, and adapt to, climate change is also why gender-conversations still revolve around theories. It is not until recently that sex-aggregated data has started to make headway, further helping to build momentum to take gender-issues more seriously, both internally within research institutions, and externally, in rural communities.

The newly released Working Paper "How resilient are farming households, communities, men and women to a changing climate in Africa?" (PDF) shows through looking at a rigid data bank, combined with in-depth interviews in East and West Africa, how men and women farmers are facing contrasting realities that either support, or hamper, their ability to adapt to climate change.

"At the moment, there are few studies that combine quantitative household-level analyses with qualitative work, delving into the ‘why’ as well as the ‘what’, says lead-author and researcher Carlos Pérez. Even fewer studies have examined gender issues in relation to agricultural practices. Since our study does both, I really think that we’ve been able to contribute with a much needed piece to the gender-debate."

An in-depth gender-look at West and East Africa

"Access to agriculture information, cash and resources, groups and productive land all represent conditions that define adaptation limits, and can either support, or hinder, individuals and communities to build climate resilience," says Pérez.

"This makes it crucial to take a closer look at how men and women farmers are accessing crucial social and political institutions and resources, in order to better predict and support their capacity to adapt to climate change," he continues. 

The data that Perez and his co-authors analysed came from a number of baseline studies collected by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and partners between 2011-2012 in East Africa, West Africa, and South Asia. At the moment, similar studies are being carried out in Latin America and Southeast Asia.

The authors of the Working Paper looked at nine different sites, in which a number of women-headed households were identified, to really untangle gender-differences.

The study concludes that there are indeed a number of differences between men and women farmers, and especially between the male and female-headed households regarding access to resources, agriculture information and land as well as involvement in organisations at different levels of society. They authors noticed more pronounced differences between women- and male-headed households in West Africa than in East Africa; which is important to note.

Women and the recurrent land issue

The study reveals that the participating women controlled less land than their male counterparts, and that the land they did own was often of poorer quality, and their tenure more insecure. This is a consequence of men being the ones, in many parts of Africa, to inherit and own land. As a result, women are left to cultivate land given to them by their husbands or by the community, so called communal land.

Research from east and west africa reveals women farmers have access to smaller, less productive and fertile land than their male counterparts. Photo: Nestlé

In Ghana, the participating women mentioned that the men’s crop fields were usually located right next to the main, permanent river, while the women’s crop fields were near a seasonal river, more dependent on rainfall and other factors.

In Burkina Faso, the women, more so than men, lacked land and had no access to improved technology or equipment, no access to manure or labor, no means to buy chemical fertilizer, and few training opportunities.

This was also the general trend for the participating West African households, where female-headed households tended to be smaller, and had women doing most of the work. Significantly, these homesteads were also more food insecure, as they tended to experience five or more "hunger months" more frequently, than the male-headed households.

Women and (non-)access to service organisations

The capacity to adapt to climate change, and sustain livelihoods, relates to the extent to which people interact with, and benefit from, social support institutions, government and NGOs, the study argues.

A significant difference between male and female farmers is that women tend to work and join organisations that are based within the local community, while men are better connected with groups that work beyond the locality.

In addition, the study reveals that men, more often than women, are usually in a more favourable position to deal with, and benefit from governmental agencies, international NGOs and even private enterprises. Via these institutions, men often get technical assistance, subsidized tools, seeds, fertilizers and improved livestock breeds, water pumps, cash incentives for communal work and much more. More importantly, men get to play a role as mediators with those organizations, and often speak to them on behalf of women.

Two Kenyan women participating in a local loan group. Getting women into larger agriculture-related service initiatives will be key, in order to strengthen their climate adaptability. Photo: C. Schubert

The local village groups are not isolated from the rest of the world though. Many organisations do channel funding through local initiatives or target women in their approaches. However, the major difference lies in women’s access to government and NGO agencies that focus on agriculture, livestock, forestry and the management of soil, water and other natural resources, the authors argue. These groups primarily, if not exclusively, target men and their needs.

The real challenge is how do we overcome these anti-women biases by public and private agencies that foster agriculture and livestock production?

The role of gender norms in climate adaptation

Gender norms will play a big role in shaping how well households will be able to adapt to a changing climate. But these norms do change, and sometimes they do so very quickly.

Sharing the findings and issues raised here with these communities is one way of spurring more widespread dialogue within and across communities, and with local and national policymakers, about the need to take gender-differences seriously. This if climate and agriculture programs and projects are to have a real, long-term impact for both men and women farmers.

Download the Paper: Perez C, Jones E, Kristjanson P, Cramer L, Thornton P, Förch W, Barahona C. 2014. How resilient are farming households, communities, men and women to a changing climate in Africa? CCAFS Working Paper no. 80.

The household quantitative surveys and the qualitative village focus group studies were implemented from late 2010 to early 2011 in nine countries in East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) and West Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal). The surveys are now being conducted in Latin America and Southeast Asia.

The CCAFS baseline studies have been designed to provide a source of evidence that farmers might have changed practices or behaviour to which the program might have contributed. The idea is to go back, in the future, to see what has changed, and how this might contribute to higher-level development outcome.

New Dietary Diversity Indicator for Women

CRP 4 program news -

 M. Yousuf Tushar/ WorldFish

A woman preparing food in Satkhira, Bangladesh. Photo credit: M. Yousuf Tushar/ WorldFish

A new dietary diversity indicator to assess the micronutrient adequacy of women’s diets has been developed, called Minimum Dietary Diversity – Women (MDD-W). It was created following a consensus meeting hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) in July 2014. The new indicator reflects consumption of at least five of ten food groups, and may be used as a new global tool for assessment, target-setting, and advocacy.

 

As nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions move up in the global development agenda, there has been increased demand for high quality indicators that measure food consumption and diet quality. Currently, the 9-point food group score is being used to measure women’s dietary diversity by many organizations, including FAO and USAID.  Furthermore, the women’s dietary diversity score is also included as one of six outcome level indicators in the USAID 10-year multi-sectoral nutrition strategy, released earlier this year.

 

The new MDD-W indicator is unique because unlike former measurements, it not only gauges the amount of dietary diversity in women’s diets, but it also offers a specific threshold for meeting women’s micronutrient needs. For example, women who consume foods from at least five out of ten outlined food groups below have a higher likelihood of micronutrient adequacy.

 

MDD-W food groups 1. All starchy staple foods 6. Eggs 2. Beans and peas 7. Vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables 3. Nuts and seeds 8. Other vitamin A-rich vegetables and fruits 4. Dairy 9. Other vegetables 5. Flesh foods 10. Other fruits

 

This dichotomous indicator can help practitioners set nutrition targets for women, advocate for healthier diets, and assess consumption patterns in order to improve women’s nutrition. Through widespread adoption where relevant, the indicator can eventually be included in global monitoring frameworks for nutrition.

 

Read more about the Minimum Dietary Diversity – Women (MDD-W) Global Dietary Diversity Indicator for Women here

ILRI Consultancy: Policy and Gender Equitable Participation (closing date 24 September 2014)

Jobs -

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to hire a consultant to prepare a journal ready paper by November 2014 focussing on tools and approaches that can help identify the policies impacting the equitable participation of women and men in dairy value chains in Tanzania. The consultant will:
1. Conduct a literature review providing an overview of the relevance of policy and gender issues within Tanzanian dairy value chains,
2. Provide an analysis of existing tools and approaches to identify
a) key policies affecting gender equitable participation in these value chains, as well as,
b) policies needed to address gender gaps identified at ground level.
3. The consultant will also be expected to develop a discussion on lessons learned with regard to the effectiveness of existing policy analysis tools and approaches that facilitate gender equitable participation in dairy value chains. The paper will be informed by evidence presented at the African Dairy Value Chain Seminar in September 2014.

ILRI works with partners worldwide to enhance the roles that livestock play in food security and poverty alleviation, principally in Africa and Asia. The outcomes of these research partnerships help people in developing countries keep their farm animals’ alive and productive, increase and sustain their livestock and farm productivity, find profitable markets for their animal products, and reduce the risk of livestock-related diseases. http://www.ilri.org http://www.ilri.org

ILRI is a not-for-profit institution with a staff of about 700 and in 2014, an operating budget of about USD83 million. A member of the CGIAR Consortium working for a food-secure future, ILRI has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, a principal campus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and offices in other countries in East, West and Southern Africa and in South, Southeast and East Asia http://www.cgiar.org

OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSIGNMENT
To produce a journal ready paper identifying what tools and approaches are most helpful to identify policies that affect the equitable participation of women and men in the Dairy value chain in Tanzania

SCOPE OF WORK
• Conduct literature review providing an overview of policy and gender issues in sub-Saharan Africa, existing tools and approaches to landscape existing key policies that have an impact on gender equitable participation in value chains.
• Provide an analysis of recent and on-going experiences and lessons learnt on the effectiveness of the above tools and approaches using evidence on the ground from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the CGIAR Research Program (CRP) on Policies Institutions and Markets (PIM) programs as well as from experiences shared at the African Dairy Value Chain Seminar. Identify policies needed to address issues identified at ground level affecting gender equitable participation in East Africa and the Tanzania value chain in particular.
• Develop a discussion of lessons learnt with regard to the effectiveness of existing tools and approaches for research and for facilitating gender equitable participation at value chain level, what gaps have been identified and ways forward.

DELIVERABLES
Journal ready paper

REQUIRED QUALIFICATIONS
• MA or PhD
• Experience with gender and development, conducting research, writing reports and publications
• Proficiency in spoken and written English

DURATION OF ASSIGNMENT, DUTY STATION, FEE AND EXPECTED PLACES OF TRAVEL
Duration: 30 days between 15th September and 30th November

Maximum: working days: 30

Duty Station: Under consultant’s discretion

Applications:
Applicants should send a cover letter and CV explaining their interest in the position, what they can bring to the job and the names and addresses (including telephone and email) of three referees who are knowledgeable about the candidate’s professional qualifications and work experience to the Director, People and Organizational Development through our recruitment portal: http://ilri.simplicant.com/ before 24 September 2014. The position title and reference number REF: LGI 01/09/2014 should be clearly marked on the subject line of the online application.

To find out more about ILRI and its staff, visit our website at http://www.ilri.org and http://www.ilri.org/ilricrowd/
ILRI is an equal opportunity employer.


ILRI Consultancy: Emerging gender issues in the Tanzania dairy value chains (closing date 24 September 2014)

Jobs -

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to hire one consultant to support in writing up a journal article on “Emerging gender issues in the Tanzania dairy value chains through analysis of available data”. The consultant will be attached to the Livelihoods, Gender and Impact (LGI) Program. The article is expected to provide an overview and an in-depth analysis of dairy value chain projects in Tanzania, as well as, the assessment of emerging gender issues. The article should identify areas for further research in gender issues and dairy value chains in Tanzania.

The LGI program is one of the five integrated science areas of ILRI’s research. Gender is one of the research areas of focus under the LGI program. The gender team seeks to understand and respond appropriately to the socio-economic contexts with which both men and women engage in livestock production. By using a research for development (R4D) approach, ILRI engages with stakeholders to understand gender differences, their causes and any consequences in livestock production value chains.

ILRI works with partners worldwide to enhance the roles that livestock play in food security and poverty alleviation, principally in Africa and Asia. The outcomes of these research partnerships help people in developing countries keep their farm animals’ alive and productive, increase and sustain their livestock and farm productivity, find profitable markets for their animal products, and reduce the risk of livestock-related diseases. http://www.ilri.org http://www.ilri.org

ILRI is a not-for-profit institution with a staff of about 700 and in 2014, an operating budget of about USD83 million. A member of the CGIAR Consortium working for a food-secure future, ILRI has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, a principal campus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and offices in other countries in East, West and Southern Africa and in South, Southeast and East Asia http://www.cgiar.org

OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSIGNMENT
To produce a journal article on emerging gender issues in the Tanzania dairy value chains through analysis of available data. The article will be used as a basis to formulate reports and proposals that will be posted on the ILRI online repository.

The consultant is expected to engage with desk review and key respondents’ Skype interviews in order to prepare and provide:
• Literature review: gender and dairy value chains in East Africa and Tanzania in particular
• Review and analysis of ILRI’s baseline data for Tanzania value chain: emerging gender issues
• Review of experiences addressing gender issues in dairy value chain projects in East Africa and Tanzania in particular
• Review of impacts of interventions that address/ed gender issues in the dairy value chain in East Africa and Tanzania in particular (e.g. EADD 1 in Kenya and Uganda)
• Discussion on: 1. What are the main gender issues in dairy value chains that affect the equal participation of female and male actors in the value chain and their enjoyments of its benefits? (e.g. access to land, control of milk etc?) 2. What approaches are most effective in facilitating the participation of women and men in the milk and meat value chains? Which were most ineffective?
• What can be learnt for future projects? challenges and opportunities
• Identify areas for further research

SCOPE OF WORK
• Overview of recent and on-going dairy value chain projects in Tanzania including particular interventions carried out and the gender approach and strategy used.
• An assessment of the impact of the dairy value chain projects from a gender perspective focusing on but not limited to: 1. the participation of women and men in the dairy value chains 2. Household relations and 3. Household nutrition
• Identify and complete analysis of what approaches/ strategies have been most effective in addressing gender, lessons learnt for future projects and areas for further research.
• Assist with the setting up and conducting of interviews with key project implementers.
• Prepare and complete a journal article based on the findings and following ILRI’s formatting guide for journal articles.

DELIVERABLES
ILRI journal article on emerging gender issues in the Tanzania dairy value chains through analysis of available data.

REQUIRED QUALIFICATIONS
• PhD
• 5 years’ experience with gender and development
• Experience in conducting research, writing reports and publications
• Proficient in spoken and written English

DURATION OF ASSIGNMENT, DUTY STATION, FEE AND EXPECTED PLACES OF TRAVEL
• Duration: 45 days between 1st September 2014 and 30th November 2014
• Maximum working days: 45
• Duty Station: Under consultant’s discretion

Applications:Applicants should send a cover letter and CV explaining their interest in the position, what they can bring to the job and the names and addresses (including telephone and email) of three referees who are knowledgeable about the candidate’s professional qualifications and work experience to the Director, People and Organizational Development through our recruitment portal: http://ilri.simplicant.com/ before 24 September 2014. The position title and reference number REF: LGI 02/09/2014, should be clearly marked on the subject line of the online application.

To find out more about ILRI and its staff, visit our website at http://www.ilri.org and http://www.ilri.org/ilricrowd/

ILRI is an equal opportunity employer.


Ugandan pig disease researcher, Joyce Akol, receives bioinformatics training

CRP 3.7 News -

Joyce Akol
Joyce Akol, a molecular biology MSc student with Makerere University and ILRI (photo credit: ILRI).

Joyce Akol, a molecular biology MSc student with Makerere University and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), recently participated in a two-week training organized by the Biosciences east and central Africa-ILRI (BecA-ILRI) Hub.

Akol, who works with the Smallholder Pig Value Chain Development (SPVCD) project in Uganda under the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish, was trained in advanced bioinformatics in Nairobi from 18-29 Aug 2014. The training aims at strengthening the capacity of researchers in national research systems of BecA-ILRI Hub target countries and is offered through a collaboration between the BecA-ILRI Hub and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).

The BecA-ILRI Hub – SLU partnership makes available genomic protocols, computational hardware and bioinformatics software to support research projects, led by researchers in national agricultural systems of eastern and central Africa, that aim to address previously intractable problems constraining Africa’s agricultural and food security development.

The SPVCD project is committed to building capacity of Ugandan researchers engaged in pig value chains research. Akol is the first student attached to the project to receive this training.

About Joyce Akol

With a background in laboratory technology, Joyce has garnered skills to investigate molecular epidemiology of viruses mainly affecting pigs in Uganda. Her Masters’ dissertation aims at understanding the molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Uganda. She is working under Michel Dione at ILRI and with Charles Masembe from Makerere University.

Prior to this award, Akol was supported by the SPVCD project for a three-months training at ILRI-Nairobi to analyze whole blood samples for presence of ASFV using real-time PCR. She has also worked with the Ugandan National Crop Resources Research Institute as a research assistant in a project to combat cassava brown streak virus using marker-assisted technology and inbreeding in resistant varieties and farmer preferred varieties of cassava.


Filed under: Animal Diseases, Article, ASF, BecA, Capacity Development, CRP37, East Africa, ILRIComms, Livestock-Fish, Pigs, Research, Uganda, Value Chains, Women

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