Feed aggregator

Aflatoxin contamination of milk and dairy feeds in the Greater Addis Ababa milk shed, Ethiopia

ILRI Market Opportunities Theme: Animal health and food safety for trade -

Aflatoxin contamination of milk and dairy feeds in the Greater Addis Ababa milk shed, Ethiopia Gizachew, D.; Szonyi, B.; Tegegne, A.; Hanson, J.; Grace, D. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic metabolite of Aspegillus fungi that can contaminate animal feed. Cows that consume AFB1-contaminated feed excrete aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in their milk. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the amount of AFM1 in raw cow's milk and AFB1 in dairy feed samples in the Greater Addis Ababa milk shed using a value chain approach. For this purpose, 100 milk samples from dairy farmers and ten milk samples from milk traders were collected. In addition, 114 feed samples from dairy farmers and 42 feed samples from feed producers, processors and traders were collected. Analysis for AFM1 and AFB1 were conducted by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed the presence of AFM1 in all milk samples, and contamination level ranged between 0.028 and 4.98 μg/L. Overall, only nine (8.2%) out of a total of 110 milk samples contained less than or equal to 0.05 μg/L of AFM1. Furthermore, 29 (26.3%) milk samples exceeded 0.5 μg/L. All the feed samples were contaminated with AFB1 ranging between seven and 419 μg/kg. Overall, out of a total of 156 feed samples collected, only 16 (10.2%) contained AFB1 at a level less than or equal to 10 μg/kg. At the same time, 41 (26.2%) of the feed samples contained AFB1 at a level exceeding 100 μg/kg. All dairy farmers used concentrate feed daily, which commonly included the mixture of wheat bran and noug (Guizotia abyssinica or Niger seed) cake (a byproduct from noug oil factories). Analysis of individual wheat bran and noug cake samples revealed that the contamination levels of AFB1 for wheat bran and noug cake were nine to 31 μg/kg and 290–397 μg/kg, respectively. Linear regression revealed significant associations between the presence of noug cake in the feed and the levels of contamination of both AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in feed. The level of aflatoxin contamination found in this study in milk and feed should prompt action to identify suitable interventions. These results suggest that risk mitigation should focus on noug cake to effectively reduce aflatoxin contamination in peri-urban dairy value chains in Ethiopia. Risk assessment of aflatoxins in noug seed and its by-products in other food chains is also warranted.

Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation system in China: A 3-year field case study

Our latest outputs -

Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation system in China: A 3-year field case study Minghua Zhou; Bo Zhu; Bruggemann, N.; Xiaoguo Wang; Xunhua Zheng; Butterbach-Bahl, K. Fertilizer nitrogen (N) application has been shown to impact both methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice-based crop systems, yet the responses of CH4 and N2O fluxes to N fertilizer applications in subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation systems are not well documented. A three-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure the fluxes of CH4 and N2O from a subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation system under three N fertilization treatments (control with no N fertilizer addition [CK], optimized N fertilizer management practice in accordance with the recommended N fertilizer application rate of 150 kg N ha−1 season−1 [OP], local farmers common N fertilizer management practice with 250 kg N ha−1 season−1 [CP]) in southwestern China. Results showed great intra- and inter-annual variations in CH4 and N2O emissions along with the temporal variations of environmental conditions, emphasizing the necessity of multi-year measurements to achieve representative estimates. Nitrogen fertilization tended to increase N2O emissions and to inhibit CH4 emissions. The direct N2O emission factors (EFd) for the rice systems (mean: 0.99%) were higher than those for the rapeseed systems (mean: 0.71%). In addition, the rice-growing season dominated annual CH4 emissions (>97%), which on average represented 87% of the annual total global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions across experimental treatments and years. Linking total GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions with grain yields, the average annual yield-scaled GWP for the control (1467 kg CO2-eq Mg−1 grain) was significantly higher than for the OP (700 kg CO2-eq Mg−1 grain) and CP (682 kg CO2-eq Mg−1 grain) treatments (P < 0.05). Given the comparable area- and yield-scaled GWP between the CP and OP treatments, the OP treatment reduced local farmers’ common N fertilizer application rate by 40% and tended to maintain crop grain yields, however it also reduced N surplus and off-site N losses in the subtropical rice–rapeseed rotation systems of southwestern China.

A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Our latest outputs -

A putative, novel coli surface antigen 8B (CS8B) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Njoroge, S.M.; Boinett, C.J.; Made, L.F.; Ouko, T.T.; Fevre, E.M.; Thomson, N.R.; Kariuki, S. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple fimbriae and pili to mediate host colonization, including the type IVb pilus, colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III). Not all colonization factors are well characterized or known in toxin positive ETEC isolates, which may have an impact identifying ETEC isolates based on molecular screening of these biomarkers. We describe a novel coli surface antigen (CS) 8 subtype B (CS8B), a family of CFA/III pilus, in a toxin producing ETEC isolate from a Kenyan collection. In highlighting the existence of this putative CS, we provide the sequence and specific primers, which can be used alongside other ETEC primers previously described.

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of the world’s grazing lands: Modeling soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes of mitigation practices

Our latest outputs -

Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of the world’s grazing lands: Modeling soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes of mitigation practices Henderson, B.B.; Gerber, P.J.; Hilinski, T.E.; Falcucci, A.; Ojima, D.S.; Salvatore, M.; Conant, R.T. This study provides estimates of the net GHG mitigation potential of a selected range of management practices in the world’s native and cultivated grazing lands. The Century and Daycent models are used to calculate the changes in soil carbon stocks, soil N2O emissions, and forage removals by ruminants associated with these practices. GLEAM is used in combination with these models to establish grazing area boundaries and to parameterize links between forage consumption, animal production and animal GHG emissions. This study provides an alternative to the usual approach of extrapolating from a small number of field studies and by modeling the linkage between soil, forage and animals it sheds new light on the net mitigation potential of C sequestration practices in the world’s grazing lands. Three different mitigation practices are assessed in this study, namely, improved grazing management, legume sowing and N fertilization. We estimate that optimization of grazing pressure could sequester 148 Tg CO2 yr−1. The soil C sequestration potential of 203 Tg CO2 yr−1 for legume sowing was higher than for improved grazing management, despite being applied over a much smaller total area. However, N2O emissions from legumes were estimated to offset 28% of its global C sequestration benefits, in CO2 equivalent terms. Conversely, N2O emissions from N fertilization exceeded soil C sequestration, in all regions. Our estimated potential for increasing C stocks though in grazing lands is lower than earlier worldwide estimates (Smith et al., 2007 and Lal, 2004), mainly due to the much smaller grazing land area over which we estimate mitigation practices to be effective. A big concern is the high risk of the practices, particularly legumes, increasing soil-based GHGs if applied outside of this relatively small effective area. More work is needed to develop indicators, based on biophysical and management characteristics of grazing lands, to identify amenable areas before these practices can be considered ready for large scale implementation. The additional ruminant GHG emissions associated with higher forage output are likely to substantially reduce the mitigation potential of these practices, but could contribute to more GHG-efficient livestock production.

ILRI vacancy: Nutrition specialist (closing date: 12 September 2015)

Jobs -

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Nutrition Specialist, Feed the Future (FtF)       – Accelerated Value Chains Development (AVCD) program, to contribute to promoting behavioral change for improved nutrition.

As part of a larger USAID-funded agriculture development program, ILRI is leading a project to accelerate the impact of livestock and dairy market interventions on household incomes, with the goal to reduce poverty and hunger in eight counties in Kenya. The focus is on taking successful interventions to scale to achieve broad impact on agricultural incomes and nutrition. The interventions span four areas: Enhancing market access and promoting business development, increasing livestock and milk productivity, enhancing the enabling environment for livestock and dairy production, improving nutrition for women and children.

ILRI works with partners worldwide to enhance the roles that livestock play in food security and poverty alleviation, principally in Africa and Asia. The outcomes of these research partnerships help people in developing countries keep their farm animals’ alive and productive, increase and sustain their livestock and farm productivity, find profitable markets for their animal products, and reduce the risk of livestock-related diseases. www.ilri.org

ILRI is a not-for-profit institution with a staff of about 700 and in 2015, an operating budget of about USD 83 million. A member of the CGIAR Consortium working for a food-secure future, ILRI has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, a principal campus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and offices in other countries in East, West and Southern Africa and in South, Southeast and East Asia. www.cgiar.org

Responsibilities

The nutrition specialist will coordinate interventions aimed at increasing the dietary diversity of smallholder households, particularly women and children. S/he will be supported by a senior nutrition specialist advising four value chains projects. Specific responsibilities include:

  • Work with partners, including the Nutrition Health+ Programme, to identify opportunities to have impact on nutritional behaviour.
  • Design and oversee implementation of nutrition education, communication and behavior change activities in the two value chains (dairy and livestock).
  • Lead capacity development activities on behavior change communication related to nutrition for partners and communities.
  • Select the most appropriate outcome indicators to monitor nutritional impact, and work with the M&E technician and partners organisations to ensure good data collection and reporting
  • Lead the writing of reports on nutritional outcomes.

Requirements

  • MSc in public health or nutrition.
  • Minimum 5 years’ experience providing technical inputs to nutrition projects, in the context of an agricultural/ livestock development project will be an advantage.
  • Experience designing, collecting and analyzing monitoring nutrition indicators.
  • Willingness to travel frequently in rural areas of Kenya.
  • Experience working in a team.
  • Ability to work independently and with strict deadlines.
  • Good analytical and writing skills.

Post location: The position is based in ILRI Nairobi, Kenya.

Terms of Appointment

This is a Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS) position based at ILRI’s Nairobi campus. It is open to Kenyan nationals only. The position is on a 3-year contract, renewable subject to satisfactory performance and availability of funding.

Number of positions: 1

Job level

This position is job level 3A. ILRI offers a competitive salary and benefits package which includes; pension, medical and other insurances for ILRI’s Nationally Recruited Staff.

How to apply: Applicants should send a cover letter and CV explaining their interest in the position, what they can bring to the job and the names and addresses (including telephone and email) of three referees who are knowledgeable about the candidate’s professional qualifications and work experience to the Director, People and Organizational Development. The position title and reference number REF: NS/FTF /AVCD/08/2015 should be clearly marked on the subject line of the cover letter.

All applications to be submitted online on our recruitment portal: http://ilri.simplicant.com by 12 September 2015.

To find out more about ILRI, visit our websites at http://www.ilri.org/

To find out more about working at ILRI visit our website at http://www.ilri.org/ilricrowd/

ILRI is an equal opportunity employer

More ILRI jobs

Subscribe by email to ILRI jobs alert


ILRI vacancy: Monitoring & evaluation, field support (closing date: 12 September 2015)

Jobs -

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit Monitoring & Evaluation – Field Support, Feed the Future (FtF) – Accelerated Value Chains Development (AVCD) program, to contribute to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation systems/protocol for Dairy value chains under the AVCD project.

As part of a larger USAID-funded agriculture development program, ILRI is leading a project to accelerate the impact of livestock and dairy market interventions on household incomes, with the goal to reduce poverty and hunger in a number of counties in Kenya. The focus is on taking successful interventions to scale to achieve broad impact on agricultural incomes and nutrition. The interventions span four areas: Enhancing market access and promoting business development, increasing livestock and milk productivity, enhancing the enabling environment for livestock and dairy production, improving nutrition for women and children.

ILRI works with partners worldwide to enhance the roles that livestock play in food security and poverty alleviation, principally in Africa and Asia. The outcomes of these research partnerships help people in developing countries keep their farm animals’ alive and productive, increase and sustain their livestock and farm productivity, find profitable markets for their animal products, and reduce the risk of livestock-related diseases. www.ilri.org

ILRI is a not-for-profit institution with a staff of about 700 and in 2015, an operating budget of about USD 83 million. A member of the CGIAR Consortium working for a food-secure future, ILRI has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, a principal campus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and offices in other countries in East, West and Southern Africa and in South, Southeast and East Asia. www.cgiar.org

Responsibilities

  • Under the supervision of the M&E scientists, design and implement monitoring and evaluation systems / protocol for dairy value chains under the AVCD project, together with partners within and outside of ILRI.
  • Implement a robust beneficiary tracking database system; managing and regularly updating M&E databases.
  • Train project partners on the implementation of the monitoring system, in particular the use of data collection forms and reporting formats, and provide ongoing coaching support through regular site monitoring visits for quality control and timely problem solving
  • Contribute to the design of evaluation frameworks, survey instruments (including both quantitative and qualitative methods), sampling strategies and other protocols for collection of M&E data.
  • Together with other team members Implement, supervise and monitor field data collection – including training of enumerators and instituting quality assurance standards and checks
  • Work with the data systems manager and higher level M & E team to incorporate M&E indicators into the overall data platform.
  • Contribute to analyses of monitoring and impact assessment data using qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • Contribute to the production of publications including M&E reports, annual reports, policy briefs, peer reviewed articles and other scientific publications in collaboration with scientists and other Research staff in ILRI.

Requirements

  • MSc. in Agricultural or Development Economics.
  • At least 3 years of relevant experience in the development and implementation of M&E. frameworks including design of tools for data collection.
  • Experience applying monitoring systems in agricultural development projects necessary.
  • Good understanding of impact, monitoring and evaluation theory and applications extending to study design as well as quantitative and qualitative analytic methods.
  • Competence in quantitative analysis and specific strength in micro-econometric analyses
  • Knowledge of statistical packages for data analysis (STATA, SPSS and Nvivo).
  • Experience in producing project reports, training manuals and peer-reviewed publications;
  • Familiarity with dairy system issues and challenges an advantage.
  • Familiarity with digital data collection tools such ODK, CSPro an advantage.
  • Ability to work effectively in multi-regional teams and with partners drawn from a diverse range of nationalities, cultures and scientific disciplines.
  • Ability to work under pressure, meeting tight deadlines without compromising the quality of deliverables.
  • Ability to prioritize tasks and able to work with little or no supervision.
  • Strong English language skills, both written and spoken.

 Number of Positions: 2

  • Dairy value chain:1
  • Livestock value Chain:1

 Post location: The position is based in ILRI Nairobi, Kenya with frequent travel to rural areas in Kenya.

Terms of Appointment

This is a Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS) position based at ILRI’s Nairobi campus. It is open to Kenyan nationals only. The position is on a 3-year contract, renewable subject to satisfactory performance and availability of funding.

Job Level

This position is job level 2D. ILRI offers a competitive salary and benefits package which includes; pension, medical and other insurances for ILRI’s Nationally Recruited Staff.

How to apply: Applicants should send a cover letter and CV explaining their interest in the position, what they can bring to the job and the names and addresses (including telephone and email) of three referees who are knowledgeable about the candidate’s professional qualifications and work experience to the Director, People and Organizational Development. The position title and reference number M&E/FTF /AVCD/08/2015 should be clearly marked on the subject line of the cover letter and specify the value chain; Dairy/Livestock.

All applications to be submitted online on our recruitment portal: http://ilri.simplicant.com by 12 September 2015.

To find out more about ILRI, visit our websites at http://www.ilri.org/

To find out more about working at ILRI visit our website at http://www.ilri.org/ilricrowd/

ILRI is an equal opportunity employer

More ILRI jobs

Subscribe by email to ILRI jobs alert


ILRI vacancy: Field coordinator: (closing date: 12 September 2015)

Jobs -

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Field Coordinator,  Feed the Future (FtF)    – Accelerated Value Chains Development (AVCD) program, to contribute to coordination of field activities in collaboration with partners including county governments and other USAID funded projects like KAVES.

As part of a larger USAID-funded agriculture development program, ILRI is leading a project to accelerate the impact of livestock and dairy market interventions on household incomes, with the goal to reduce poverty and hunger in eight counties in Kenya. The focus is on taking successful interventions to scale to achieve broad impact on agricultural incomes and nutrition. The interventions span four areas: Enhancing market access and promoting business development, increasing livestock and milk productivity, enhancing the enabling environment for livestock and dairy production, improving nutrition for women and children.

ILRI works with partners worldwide to enhance the roles that livestock play in food security and poverty alleviation, principally in Africa and Asia. The outcomes of these research partnerships help people in developing countries keep their farm animals’ alive and productive, increase and sustain their livestock and farm productivity, find profitable markets for their animal products, and reduce the risk of livestock-related diseases. www.ilri.org

ILRI is a not-for-profit institution with a staff of about 700 and in 2015, an operating budget of about USD 83 million. A member of the CGIAR Consortium working for a food-secure future, ILRI has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, a principal campus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and offices in other countries in East, West and Southern Africa and in South, Southeast and East Asia. www.cgiar.org

Responsibilities

Reporting to the Value Chain coordinator, the job holder will be responsible for the following:

  • Coordinate field activities aimed at increasing smallholder dairy productivity and market linkages (through increased access to inputs and services as well as uptake of productivity enhancing technologies), working closely with development partners and county governments.
  • Establish and manage stakeholder relationships that improve the ability of the team to achieve the agreed outputs and outcomes.
  • Ensure timely and appropriate implementation of project activities.
  • Support project monitoring activities.
  • Undertake preparation of regular reports on project field activities.

Requirements

  • Master’s degree in Livestock Production or Animal Health with experience in implementing development projects OR a Bachelor’s degree in Veterinary Medicine/Animal Science with over 5 year experience implementing development projects.
  • Field experience in implementation of dairy development projects in Kenya – especially in the area of livestock husbandry, animal health, livestock production and farmer market linkages.
  • Demonstrated experience working in collaborative development projects involving multiple partners and including good understanding of government programs and processes under the livestock department.
  • Demonstrated experience in coordination of field activities and supervision of field staff
  • Proven experience in program management and monitoring & evaluation.
  • Excellent written and spoken English.
  • Good interpersonal, facilitation and communication skills especially to diverse audience and targets.
  • Ability to work in multi-cultural environment and foster teamwork.
  • Ability to work with limited supervision and to take initiatives.

Number of Positions: 3

  • Dairy value chain: 1
  • Livestock value Chain:2

Post location: The position is based in ILRI Nairobi, Kenya with frequent travel to rural areas in Kenya.

Terms of Appointment

This is a Nationally Recruited Staff (NRS) position based at ILRI’s Nairobi campus. It is open to Kenyan nationals only. The position is on a 3-year contract, renewable subject to satisfactory performance and availability of funding.

Job Level

This position is job level 2D. ILRI offers a competitive salary and benefits package which includes; pension, medical and other insurances for ILRI’s Nationally Recruited Staff.

How to apply: Applicants should send a cover letter and CV explaining their interest in the position, what they can bring to the job and the names and addresses (including telephone and email) of three referees who are knowledgeable about the candidate’s professional qualifications and work experience to the Director, People and Organizational Development. The position title and reference number REF: FC/FTF/AVCD /08/2015 should be clearly marked on the subject line of the cover letter and specify the value chain; Dairy/Livestock.

All applications to be submitted online on our recruitment portal: http://ilri.simplicant.com by 12 September 2015.

To find out more about ILRI, visit our websites at http://www.ilri.org/

To find out more about working at ILRI visit our website at http://www.ilri.org/ilricrowd/

ILRI is an equal opportunity employer

More ILRI jobs

Subscribe by email to ILRI jobs alert


Ethiopia recognizes ILRI contribution to the country’s livestock sector growth and transformation

News from ILRI -

Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Career Awardees with the Ethiopian State Minister for Livestock, (from left to right) Gijs van ‘t Klooster of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Jean Hanson, ILRI forage diversity project, H.E. Gebregziabher G/Yonhannes, State Minister for Livestock, Barry Shapiro, ILRI program development specialist, and Layne Coopock of Utah State University.

Ethiopian Society of Animal Production Career Awardees with the Ethiopian State Minister for Livestock, (from left to right) Gijs van ‘t Klooster of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Jean Hanson, ILRI forage diversity project, H.E. Gebregziabher G/Yonhannes, State Minister for Livestock, Barry Shapiro, ILRI program development specialist, and Layne Coopock of Utah State University.

Livestock production accounts for approximately one third of the global water footprint, and Ethiopia is no different. A scarce commodity in the country, water availability has been aggravated by climatic fluctuations and rapid economic growth. With the potential consequences for human health of a lack of quality drinking water, as well as for the country’s development, there is a strong case for enhancing the role of research for development in understanding better how limited water resources can be used.

The Ethiopia livestock master plan (LMP) will be officially launched by the Government of Ethiopia in September 2015, but the full report and a series of research briefs on the LMP, livestock feeds, genetics, animal health and an enabling policy and institutional environment can be found on the ILRI website.

Water and Livestock Development in Ethiopia, the theme of this year’s Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) from 27 to 29 August, was addressed by speakers from a range of related issues, including rangeland dynamics and human health, sustainable pastoralism, genetics, livestock value chains, and the contribution of the livestock master plan to the national Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) II.

Prior to the official commencement of the event, ESAP officially recognized the contribution of five non-Ethiopian scientists—two present day and two former staff member of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)—to the development of the country’s livestock sector. They were presented with an ESAP Career Award by the Ethiopian State Minister for Livestock, H.E. Gebregziabher G/Yonhannes.

 ESAP 2015 annual conference–water and livestock development in Ethiopia

Barry Shapiro, a program development specialist at ILRI, was recognized for his ‘Outstanding collaborative leadership in the analysis and development of the Ethiopian livestock master plan’, while Jean Hanson, who leads ILRI’s forage diversity project, was acknowledged for ’35 years of outstanding achievements in genebank management and the conservation of forage genetic diversity’. Other awardees included former ILRI staff members Layne Coopock of Utah State University and Henry Fitzhugh of the Norman Borlaug Institute for International Agriculture, and Gijs van ‘t Klooster of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Agricultural development is a national priority, and within that the livestock sector is crucial, the Ethiopian State Minister for Livestock explained to crowded room of academics and practitioners. Of the rapid growth experienced in recent years in the country, more than 40% has been accounted for by growth in the agricultural sector. Key to further development will be creating an enabling environment to meet the challenges of feeds shortages and the pressures on limited water resources. Trade-offs between higher production and stressed water resources need to be addressed intentionally; this is where research and knowledge sharing come in.

In his address to the conference, Shapiro outlined how investment interventions—better genetics, feed and health services, which, together with complementary policy support—could help meet the GTP II targets by improving productivity and total production in the key livestock value chains for poultry, red meat-milk, and crossbred dairy cows. If the proposed investments—of 7762 million Ethiopian birr (USD 388.1 million), 57% and 43% from the public and private sectors respectively—were successfully implemented, they could massively reduce poverty in livestock-keeping households, helping family farms move from traditional to improved market-oriented systems.

Other ILRI staff members presenting speeches at the proceeding include Tadelle Dessie of the African Chicken Genetic Gain project and Berhanu Gebremedhin of the Livestock and Irrigation Value Chains project.

The Ethiopia livestock master plan (LMP) will be officially launched by the Government of Ethiopia in September 2015, but the full report and a series of research briefs on the LMP, livestock feeds, genetics, animal health and an enabling policy and institutional environment can be found on the ILRI website.


Update on Program Management Framework Project

Latest ILRI announcements -

I would like to thank all of you who contributed to the successful launch of the Programme Management Framework Project by providing feedback to the Accenture Development Partnerships Team in Introductory Sessions held from June 24th to August 6th in Nairobi, Addis, and with regional staff representatives.  During this time, we conducted fifty meetings attended by 250 staff members.  We very much appreciate the involvement and enthusiasm from all those who attended, as well as the valuable feedback provided.  With the feedback collected, the team has a solid foundation from which to design the Programme Management process.

As a next step, the Programme Management Framework Project team will continue to analyze the feedback collected in the Introductory Sessions and prepare for Requirements Gathering sessions, where these feedback points will be used as input to the requirements and process design.  The Requirements Sessions will be conducted in September with a representative group of ILRI staff, selected by their respective Directors as Subject Matter Experts, to be part of the Project’s Working Group and provide guidance to the design and implementation of the Programme Management Framework.

As the team works to design and validate the programme management process and implementation plan, they will continue to engage select staff members to gather input and feedback and will reach out to individuals or groups, as needed.  Toward the end of the current phase in December, you will hear more on the implementation of the Programme Management Framework.

We are also in the process of forming a Steering committee for the project, that will oversee the project planning and deliverables. You will be updated on this in due course.

Best wishes and renewed thanks for your support of this critical organizational development initiative.

With regards,
Stella Kiwango Interim Director, People and Organizational Development
Email: skiwango@cgiar.org

Indian farmers in Odisha, on the Bay of Bengal, face fodder crisis: Using crop ‘wastes’ as feed is one solution

Clippings -

OrissaCow_Cropped

A cow looks for food in the compound of a former palace in Odisha, in eastern India; the native cattle of Orissa are notable for their thin, curved, sheep-like horns (photo via Flickr/ankyuk).

Odisha (formerly known as Orissa), an economically fast-growing state in eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal, is facing an emerging fodder crisis. The people of this state depend largely on agriculture for their livelihoods, and animal husbandry is widely practiced. In 1999–2000 47% of the people were living below the poverty line, which is nearly double the Indian average of 26%.

One pathway out of of poverty for many here is to increase the efficiency and levels of their small-scale livestock production to meet the growing demand in India for more milk and meat. But without feed to give their cattle, sheep, goats and other ruminant animals, the state’s many millions of livestock producers will be unable to improve or increase their productivity.

New results of a study by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) show that lack of adequate amounts and quality of fodder is one of the biggest constraints these farmers face. A solution, say ILRI scientists, is to make better use of the residues of rice and maize (paddy straw and maize stover) as supplementary livestock feed.

‘Odisha is facing an emergent fodder crisis necessitating urgent redirection of strategies to bridge the widening demand and supply gap as well as ensure quality feed to boost livestock productivity.

‘It is estimated that there is already a shortfall of 48 per cent in green fodder availability and 24 per cent dry fodder in the State which is set to aggravate in next four to five years. By 2020, there will be 57 per cent deficit in dry fodder availability taking into consideration the fact that one farmer will require at least four to five kgs every day for large ruminant.

‘Development of area specific best feeding practices by efficient utilisation and value addition of crop residues is the way forward to meet the growing demand for quality fodder for farmers in Odisha, experts stated at a  workshop on ‘improving livestock feeding practice and enhancing feed and fodder availability’ here on Thursday.

The workshop organised by the Fisheries and Animal Resources Development Department (FARD) in association with International Livestock Research Institute was inaugurated by FARD Minister Pradip Maharathi. It presented results of trials conducted by the ILRI in Bhadrak, Puri and Mayurbhanj districts.

‘Field trials have shown higher milk yield by 300 to 600 gms per animal per day along with improved quality on feeding of chopped paddy straw with specific mineral mixture. Mixing chopped paddy straw and maize stover realised higher milk yield by one to two litres per animal per day in Mayurbhanj. . . .’

Read the whole article in the New Indian Express: Experts moot plans to tide over fodder crisis in state, 28 Aug 2015.

Read more about the value of crop residues as livestock feed.


Filed under: Animal Feeding, Article, ASSP, Forages, ILRI, India, Intensification, South Asia Tagged: Odisha

ILRI Ethiopia: Feedback on parking program

Latest ILRI announcements -

As you know, we are implementing a new parking scheme on the campus. As we implement the program, we are seeking your feedback to hear what is working and what is not. If you have feedback to share, please email me. You can provide your feedback in the email or request to arrange a meeting to discuss with a member of the implementation team.

If you have not registered your vehicle, please do so at https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1KnYFhJ8-ejeyclqgscPl05xKDYSeWZ3dpeQ4_Fa7WDM/viewform.

There are many vehicles which don’t move on a day to day basis. If your personal or project vehicle is mostly stationary, we are asking you to please apply for an overnight pass and relocate it near the barn behind the security office to leave enough space for staff and visitors to park on campus.

Thanks,

Gail Amare | Head of Administration, Ethiopia
Email: G.Amare@cgiar.org

 

 

OCS update

Latest ILRI announcements -

Good news! We are now READY to roll out OCS in Kenya & Ethiopia!

Actually, already more than half of you ARE already live with the time sheets module, almost all Nairobi and Addis research staff has now been trained. In October/November, most of the support staff will follow.

Next step is to go live in Nairobi and Addis with the procurement, travel and pipeline modules. This  will happen as per September 21st.  Finally, we will go live with the finance/payments modules as per October 8th. As of that date we will completely seize to use our current SUN systems and our paperwork procedures to have all procurement, travel and payment authorization done fully on line!  The weeks between now and September 21st we are using to design more reports and  prepare all the mid-September trainings for technical users and for Budget holders/managers, for which you most of you recently received invites, or soon will.

We took some extra time to prepare the roll out and to minimize disturbances for you. Some minor inconveniences will be unavoidable though; for example, we will need to close the Stores for a few days in September and will have a short black out period for payments early October. I will share more details with you about this pretty soon.

For Nairobi based staff: To know more about implementation process, OCS functionality now and in the future, and much more: Please join us for our OCS open day, next Friday (4/9) after the Friday morning coffee! We will have demonstrations, Info leaflets, and specialist explaining and answering any question you might have.

For regional staff: Please don’t think we forgot about you: Several regional managers will get an OCS training during upcoming IRMC: They will be taught to get basic reports out of the system and will be informed about the functionalities we will roll out in the regions 2016. So for now, nothing much will change, but in 2016 OCS will come to the regions too.

Misja Brandenburg | Director Corporate Services
Email:
 M.Brandenburg@cgiar.org

Pig value chains in Uganda – farmer case stories

CRP 3.7 News -

Pig production is a major source of livelihoods for over 1.1 million households in Uganda. Mainly kept by smallholder farmers under backyard systems, the pig is preferred because it grows fast, and eats leftover food and crop residues. In recent years, the Livestock and Fish program has worked in Uganda with partners to improve the livelihoods, incomes and assets of smallholder pig producers, particularly women, in a sustainable manner, by increasing productivity, reducing risk, and improving market access in pig value chains (more on this project).

Meet some of the farmers involved in the program:

Madrine Nabayinda, 29 lives with her mother in Kagezi village, Kabonera sub-county of Masaka district.

She started pig farming in June 2014 with 20 two- month-old piglets using money she got from crop harvest sales and labour she provided off-farm.

She was driven by the need to better her financial condition from dependence to self-reliance. Her farm has grown to 15 sows, one boar and 45 piglets.

Madrine was one of the pig farmers trained by the project on utilisation of planted forage as a feeding option for pigs. She planted five forage species; Mulato, Lablab, Canavalia, Clitoria and Mulberry grown on a total acreage of about 0.5 acres and harvest close to 100kgs every two weeks. The rest of the five-acre plot of land is occupied by the family house and their crop farm where maize, sweetpotato, coffee, cassava, bananas and beans are grown.

She says that the fodder has offered her some relief to the feed challenge. When the price of commercial feed rises, she cuts back on the quantities she buys and uses more of the planted forages supplemented by a bit of the purchased feed. During the rainy season, the forage grows faster and she often sees no need to buy commercial feed. In her opinion, Mulato seem more resilient and tolerant to harsh conditions like dry spells and is indeed preferred by pigs to the other forage species. She plans to increase the acreage of planted forages to over an acre because she believes it will solve her pig feed dilemma.

Kabonera Sub County where Madrine lives has had recurrent outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF). This highly fatal disease in domestic pigs is feared by many farmers because of its high mortality rate, with the potential to wipe out an entire herd within days. Madrine shares this fear and has taken all necessary precautions within her means borrowing lessons she learnt from the training on biosecurity measures for the prevention of ASF, which was conducted for over 800 farmers in Masaka district.

Using old tin roofing materials, she has constructed a fence around her sties to keep out unauthorized visitors and restrict entry by stray animals. Additionally she utilizes a foot bath whereby all visitors to the farm must step in a trough containing disinfectant to minimize chances of pathogen transmission into her pig farm.

Madrine is quite optimistic that if the current pig market challenges are streamlined she will scale new heights of pig production to become a model large scale pig producer.

Margaret Ddungu has reared pigs for over 15 years starting with one sow and no sty. She now has 9 sows, a boar and 8 piglets that she keeps in a wooden sty. At 50, she seems not to have lost any of her youthful energy going by the speed at which she feeds her pigs. Her husband helps out with the dairy enterprise, chopping fodder for their 2 heifers while Margaret tends to the pigs. Their three sons are away at school.

Her pigs have been good to her, from the pig sales; she’s been able to raise school fees for her sons and money for her daily domestic needs. The couple is unable to find cheap labour and therefore tend to their crop farm where they grow coffee, bananas, maize and cassava. The farm provides food for the household and extra income when the crops are sold off at the time of harvest.

Her first contact with ILRI was in 2013 when she participated in the value chain assessment. Her most pressing challenge was access to quality and affordable feeds for her pigs. Her pigs were fed largely on crop residues, kitchen swill and sometimes maize bran that she bought when she had extra cash.

She participated in a training organized by CIAT and ILRI where she was taught how to plant forage on her farm. Among the varieties she planted were Canavalia brasiliensis, Clitoria ternatea, Lablab purpureus, Brachiaria Mulato and Mulberry.

Unfortunately, her forage garden was adversely affected by recent dry spells. All was not lost though, the more resilient species like Mulato and lablab survived.

“My pigs love the forage, but seem to prefer Mulato. I have been able to save on my expenses for feeds by a third of the previous cost” Margaret says.

She adds that her pigs are growing faster than before she started feeding them on the forage. She plans to increase the land allocation to planted forages to a whole acre.

Kato Muwonge, 49 has kept pigs for the past 23 years. To him pig keeping is more of a business, it is a lifestyle.

Though he started off with tethering, he later upgraded to intensive pig rearing in sties after getting training by the government-led National Agricultural Advisory Services in 2003.

He currently keeps 6 pigs as part of his 5 acre-large farmland. He also engages in crop farming and grows sweetpotato, cassava, bananas, coffee, paw paw and avocado.

The pig enterprise has provided money for his children’s school fees and he was able to start a poultry farm and retail shop for his wife out of the pig sales.

Kato has faced numerous challenges: In 2001 his farm was hit by African swine fever that wiped out his entire herd. He resumed pig keeping in 2003. He is also challenged by the scarcity and poor quality of pig feeds. He finds feeding both costly and time-consuming because it takes time to locate a reliable feed stockist as many retailers in the neighbourhood sell adulterated feed. He also lacks proper housing for his pigs. The one-acre plot of land that he owns is split between his crop farm, residential house, poultry enterprise and the pig farm.

To feed his animals, he joined training courses by ILRI and partners on feed formulation using locally available feed resources, planting and utilization of forages as well as making sweetpotato silage. He planted Mulato, Lablab, Canavalia, Clitoria and Mulberry on a 40ft x 50ft plot of land. Mulato and Lablab leaves seem to be preferred by his pigs while he often disguises the rest of the forage species with sweetpotato vines and other crop residues.

Muwonge has also made sweetpotato silage by compounding and ensiling sweetpotato vines and tubers, cassava, pawpaws and avocado. These different formulations and planted fodder have enabled him spend less on commercial feeds.

“Initially, I fed each pig on 3 kg of maize bran per day, now with the different forages and silage I use between 1.5 and 2kg of maize bran per pig per day. I save about Ugs. 5,400 on feeding per day,” he says.

Kato is vice chairperson of the Kabonera-Kyanamukaaka pig farmers’ cooperative society. It is piloting a pig business hub in Kabonera Sub County where they hope to collectively sell their pigs and jointly purchase farm inputs and services. The group has already embarked on joint purchase of brewers’ waste as an option for their pig feeds.

Though very optimistic about this enterprise, Kato seeks support for proper pig housing and water harvesting technology to solve his farm’s water problem.

 
More news and updates from the Uganda projects

Reports and outputs from the Uganda projects


Filed under: Africa, ASSP, CRP37, East Africa, ILRI, LGI, Livestock, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Cereal systems in South Asia show diverse benefits of conservation agriculture

CRP 7 News -

Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are also climate-smart, meaning they help farmers adapt to climate change while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, found researchers from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), the Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA) and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). 

In an August 2015 article in the Journal of Integrative Agriculture, researchers report that a comprehensive literature review and evidence collected from on-farm trials showed that conservation agriculture - defined as minimal soil disturbance and permanent soil cover combined with appropriate rotations - improved farmers’ income, helped crops sustain or adapt to heat and water stresses, and reduced agriculture’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions in cereal systems in South Asia. 

Farmers reap economic benefits

Conservation agriculture recommends minimal soil disturbance, most commonly tillage. Farmers who practiced zero tillage saved 23% in production costs by avoiding preparatory tillage and reducing the number of times fields were irrigated, while reaping the same or slightly higher yields.

Farmer Ram Shubagh Chaudhary in his wheat fields in Uttar Pradesh, India. HE grows wheat and rice by RETAINING CROP RESIDUES AND EMPLOYING ZERO TILLAGE, KEY COMPONENTS OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE. Here he shows his bumper wheat crop. Photo: P. Kosina, CIMMYT

Minimizing heat stress

High temperatures during the maturity stage cause wheat to decrease grain size, lowering overall yields, a phenomenon known as “terminal heat effect.” Farmers who practice conservation agriculture avoid this heat stress because residues left on the surface of the field conserve soil moisture, enhancing transpiration and creating a cooling effect – thus avoiding reduced yields caused by terminal heat effect.

Efficient use of water resources

Researchers found multiple examples that the zero tillage component of conservation agriculture led to significant water savings in both rice and wheat systems. Water savings accrued across systems. In rice-wheat systems, retention of wheat residues reduces water use in rice, and retention of rice residues causes reduced water use in wheat. Non-requirement of preparatory tillage advances the planting times thereby increasing rainwater-use efficiency and utilizing residual moisture from the previous crop.

Decrease in greenhouse gas emissions

Minimizing soil disturbance allows for soil carbon to accumulate, causing a net soil carbon gain. Although scientists are still debating the extent of soil carbon sequestered through conservation agriculture, indirect emissions reductions are numerous: less power and fuel consumption due to decreased tillage in conservation agriculture, decreased labor from machines and humans, and slower depreciation of equipment.

Business-as-usual production practices such as conventional tillage and farmers’ nutrient and irrigation management systems are greenhouse gas-intensive, while zero tillage reduces energy consumption in land preparation and crop establishment and efficient use of water resources reduces energy needs from pumping. Leaving residues in the field increases soil health and fertility, thereby reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.

Researchers found that, on average, farmers could save 36 liters of diesel per hectare, equivalent to a reduction in 93 kg CO2 emission per hectare per year by practicing zero tillage for land preparation and crop establishment in the rice-wheat system typical on the Indo-Gangetic Plain,.Given that 13.5 million hectares are under rice-wheat system cultivation in the region, this represents a reduction of 12.6 megatons of CO2 equivalent.

New technologies increase uptake of CA

Despite excellent productivity, economic gains and environmental benefits, adoption of conservation agriculture in South Asia is still relatively slow, most likely due to various technological and socio-economic factors. It takes years and ample evidence for farmers to change the entrenched habit of tillage with planting. And it is a process.

For example, some farmers have adopted zero-tillage in wheat production, primarily to facilitate early planting, lower production costs and increase yields (and therefore profitabilitiy). However, these same farmers still prefer to practice tillage and puddling (wet-tillage) in their rice crops for weed control and reduction in percolation loss of water/nutrient. Also, farmers tend to burn crop residues to facilitate planting with the zero-tillage drill. To realize the full potential of conservation agriculture, all crops in rotation have to be brought under zero tillage, and crop residues will have to be used as soil surface mulch.

Due to the recent development of the “Turbo Happy Seeder,” which can drill seed and fertilizer directly through loose and anchored crop residues, farmers are gradually moving towards zero tillage across the agriculture system.

Farmers who practice conservation agriculture also must adjust their nutrient management systems in order to maximize crop productivity decrease costs. Conventional fertilizer recommendations have been calibrated based on tillage-based systems are thus not necessarily appropriate for conservation agriculture systems, including nutrient stewardship (applying right source of fertilizer at the right time in right place using right method).

Crop residue management is essential for continuous coil cover, an important component of conservation agriculture, but farmers are faced with competing uses of crop residue as livestock feed, fuel, mulch and compost. Local adaptive research is needed to address strategic residue and nutrient management, weed control and scale-appropriate machinery development.

Link to the article:

Climate change adaptation, greenhouse gap mitigation and economic profitability of conservation agriculture: Some examples from cereal systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains

Such a paradigm shift in crop management requires a mindset transition among farmers and other value chain actors, including researchers, extension agents, market players and other institutions. Though it is recognized that transition takes time, recent progress and development in weed control and nutrient management systems signal that practice of conservation agriculture is growing across the region, including among different socio-economic groups and farm typologies.

CCAFS and CIMMYT continue research and implementation of low emissions agriculture across the globe. See also the regional focus on conservation and climate-smart agriculture in South Asia.

Past PIM Newsletters

CRP 2: program news -

Updated visa regulations for Kenya

Latest ILRI announcements -

The Government of the Republic of Kenya, has embarked on a process of introducing e-visa application for Kenyan visa applicants as of July 3, 2015.

This applies to foreign nationals who get visa on arrival in Kenya. Citizens of other countries eg Senegal, Cameroon, Mali, Syria, Eritrea etc. will apply for visas in their countries of origin or the ILRI liaison office in Nairobi can apply for them as usual.

 

For people who usually get a visa on arrival

You need to:

  1. Click register on www.ecitizen.go.ke
  2. Select Register as a Visitor.
  3. Once Logged in, Select Department of Immigration services.
  4. Select submit Application.
  5. Select Kenyan Visa.
  6. Select the type of Visa and read the Instructions Carefully.
  7. Fill in the application form.
  8. Pay Using visa card, MasterCard and other debit cards.
  9. Await approval via email, then download and print the eVisa from your eCitizen account.
  10. Present your printed eVisa to the immigration officer at the port of entry.

Disclaimer

  1. Visa processing fee is non-refundable.
  2. Incomplete applications will be rejected.
  3. The possession of an eVisa is not the final Authority to enter The Republic of Kenya.
  4. Engaging in any form of business or employment without a requisite permit or pass is an offence.
  5. A visa is required prior to entry into The Republic of Kenya.
  6. The e-Visa printout must be presented at the port of entry.
  7. It should take at least 2 working days to get your eVisa.
  8. Each adult visitor to the Republic of Kenya is required to submit evisa applications in their personal ecitizen account. Parents can apply for their children in the parents account.

Insure your herd now!

IBLI News -

Sales of IBLI are currently ongoing across Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia.  Please find a listing below of the Lead Agents in your area and contact them today!  Sales close at the end of September.

Marsabit, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Adan Aide (0721 588 881)
  • APA Insurance – Edin Ibrahim (0712 203 396)

Isiolo, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Waqo Galgallo (0701 028 065)
  • APA Insurance – Lawrence Lesingiran (0726 234572)

Wajir, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Hassan Yussuf (0721 987 456)

Garissa, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Harun Aden (0721 229 912)

Mandera, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Abdisalam Church (0724 687 378)

Moyale, Kenya

  • Takaful Insurance of Africa – Did Nyapo Boru (0721 708 220)

Borana, Ethiopia

  • Oromia Insurance Company –

DSC_2360 IMG_1527


Pages

Subscribe to International Livestock Research Institute aggregator