CRP 3.7 News

New Tanzania study to review fodder markets and their role in boosting dairy production

Fodder on a bike, Ubiri village, Lushoto

A Tanzanian farmer carrying livestock fodder (photo credit: ILRI/Niels Teufel).

An International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)-led study to assess fodder markets and enhance availability of feeds for smallholder dairy systems in Tanzania has been launched.

Livestock sector partners, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania Dairy Board, the Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock Development and ILRI launched the initiative at a meeting in Dar es Salaam on 11 November 2015.

The study will address low feed supply for the dairy sector in the country by looking at market arrangement and consumption of fodder by dairy producers and it will analyse challenges such as value chain actors’ knowledge of the fodder market, economic viability and quality of different types of fodder. The study will also assess how far businesses engaged in fodder markets can serve areas beyond urban and peri-urban areas.

‘We look forward to new evidence from this study on how to extend fodder markets into dry areas to help alleviate feed shortages, especially in the dry season,’ said Amos Omore, ILRI’s country representative in Tanzania. Ben Lukuyu, an animal nutrition researcher at ILRI is leading the study, which will seek to design interventions for improving the performance of emerging fodder markets to alleviate fodder scarcity.

Anecdotal evidence shows that most fodder trading in Tanzania happens in towns and in peri urban areas but a scientific review of fodder markets in the country was last done in 1978. Fodder markets are particularly important for the landless and urban and peri urban dairy farmers who are unable to grow their own fodder, and who need access to quality fodder at reasonable prices to be able to produce milk economically and at competitive cost.

The study will be carried out in the milk producing areas of Dar es Salaam and its environs, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga and Morogoro where the ILRI-led MoreMilkiT project is implemented. The study will also focus on emerging dairy areas in the Lake Victoria region of Mwanza.

‘Finding from this study will support a strategy to tackle feed shortages and bottlenecks in the country, which is one of the aims of the Dairy Development Forum,’ said Lukuyu.

Partners used the meeting to agree study sites and develop tools and work plans and a project budget towards a full launch of the study in 2016.

Filed under: Africa, Animal Feeding, ASSP, Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, East Africa, ILRI, Livestock, Research, Southern Africa, Value Chains

Agro-pastoralist cattle keepers in Tanzania to benefit as dairy processor agrees to buy their milk

Milk producers in a group photo

Representatives of farmer groups in Morogoro during a visit to ASAS Dairies to negotiate terms of purchase for their milk

Agro-pastoralist cattle keepers in five villages in Kilosa and Mvomero districts in Tanzania’s Morogoro region are set to become more commercial and reap huge benefits from milk sales following an agreement with a leading dairy processor to buy their milk.

The agreement was facilitated by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)-led MoreMilkiT project.

Under the agreement, which was reached in October 2015 between representatives of milk producer groups in the two districts and ASAS Dairies Ltd, the smallholder farmers will supply milk to the ASAS hub in Iringa region starting February 2016.

The new arrangement will provide opportunity for farmers to deliver up to 1,000 litres of milk per day to the processor, providing a key market which was previously unavailable to individual farmers and farmer groups created by the MoreMilkiT project in the area.

The MoreMilk iT project—which is funded by Irish Aid and is implemented by Sokoine University, Faida Mali, Heifer International Tanzania, the Tanzania Dairy Board and ILRI—is working with farmers in Morogoro and Tanga to pilot approaches to increase their use of inputs and services for more milk production and promote better milk market linkages to exploit new market opportunities arising from rising demand for milk and dairy products in Tanzania.

Using a ‘dairy market hubs’ approach, the project brings together small-scale producers with common interests in enhancing their access to milk markets, inputs and services such as training and credit with milk as collateral. The farmers also use the hubs to network and find shared solutions to various other social challenges that they face.

Under the new partnership, milk producers will benefit from a reliable milk market. This will ensure sustainability and a steady flow of income for participating milk producers. ‘We want dairy farmers to recognize their role in supplying quality milk, even as we assure them of a ready market’ said Fuad Abri, the managing director of ASAS Dairies.

Farmers groups from other areas that currently deliver milk to ASAS Dairies have benefited from a ready market for milk and the assurance of prompt payments, besides training opportunities and boreholes provided by the dairy. According to Abri, ASAS Dairies will, in February 2016, install a milk collection centre in Mikumi town, to help farmers in Kilosa and Mvomero deliver milk to an easily accessible central location.

Filed under: Africa, Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, East Africa, ILRI, LGI, Livestock, Markets, Southern Africa, Tanzania, Value Chains

Exploring Indonesian aquaculture futures

In Indonesia, WorldFish and partners have applied a unique methodology to evaluate growth trajectories for aquaculture under various scenarios, as well as the opportunities and challenges these represent. Indonesia is currently the fourth largest aquaculture producer globally, and the sector needs to grow to meet future fish demand.

The study overlapped economic and environmental models with quantitative and participatory approaches to understand the future of aquaculture in Indonesia. Such analyses, while not definitive, have provided new understanding of the future supply and demand for seafood in Indonesia stretching to 2030. The learning from this research provides a foundation for future interventions in Indonesian fish food systems, as well as a suite of methodologies that can be applied more widely for insightful analyses of aquaculture growth trajectories in other countries or regions.

Download the report

Filed under: Aquaculture, Asia, CRP2, CRP37, Fish, Indonesia, Research, Southeast Asia, Value Chains, WorldFish

Reaching out to Nicaraguan livestock farming communities: “Because the farm belongs to all of us”

Young women and men from rural livestock farming communities in Camoapa, Nicaragua, record radio vignettes tackling gender issues in farming

Seeking to address issues regarding the way men and women livestock farmers understand and manifest masculinity in their lives by identifying behaviours and dynamics linked to traditional gender roles in rural communities, the Livestock and Fish program recorded two radio vignettes with a group of five community members, in collaboration with Radio Camoapa, a local radio station located in the center-north region of Nicaragua.

The topics discussed in the vignettes emerged from focus group interactions, which were conducted using theater of the oppressed techniques and alternative methodologies to foster cooperative interactions among participants from different gender and age groups. Through the participation of a diverse group of women, men, and youth from local communities in this creative outreach initiative, the program proposes positive ideas to challenge negative perceptions around traditional gender roles.

One of the main issues raised in these focus groups included the phrase “Until the body holds out,” referring to physically demanding labor without rest as a sign of masculinity. This also involved being exposed to risky, sometimes violent situations. Another issue linked to this was the tendency for men to feel they must work and make decisions alone, as part of their duties as family providers. The radio vignettes addressed this by suggesting that farm and household information, decisions, and labour can be shared by all family members.

While reflecting on traditional gender roles in their communities, the focus group participants expressed that most public spaces are considered to be better suited for men than for women, including dynamics of control and how these roles emerge in the contributions each person considers their responsibilities in household and farm contexts. The vignettes challenged these ideas by including a situation where a man stays at home to rest after an arduous workday, while his wife attends a training session on improved pastures.

These vignettes were made possible by the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish, in collaboration with CIAT-Nicaragua, the Camoapa Women’s Group for Policy Influence (GRUMIC), and the Association for Municipal Development of Camoapa (ADM).

Listen to the vignettes:

Filed under: Animal Feeding, Cattle, Central America, CIAT, Communications, CRP37, Dairying, Gender, Latin America, Livestock, Nicaragua, Research, Value Chains, Women

Developing a gender capacity assessment and development methodology and tools

Agricultural development interventions in sub-Saharan Africa tend to favour men. They dominate markets and control family income earned from sales. Women do most of the work and receive fewer benefits. Their access to resources and services is often hindered; they have limited control over assets, access to markets, knowledge and social networks, and decision-making authority. In turn, these gender-based resource constraints hamper women’s ability to access and use improved agricultural technologies or engage in resource intensive enterprises. Achieving development objectives and gender equity in the sector require developing the capacity of agricultural value chain actors and enablers.

However, many development and research organizations lack the knowledge and skills to integrate gender approaches into their programs. Not just essential to the achievement of gender equity, such approaches can improve food security and nutrition, and drive agricultural transformation. Therefore, addressing gender-inequity will require increased investment in skills and knowledge for value chain actors and enablers. A starting point is the assessment of current gender capacities to give momentum to the implementation of strategic interventions responding to the needs of both men and women.

To tackle these issues, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) commissioned a team of consultants (Transition International) to support the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish to design a comprehensive gender capacity assessment methodology and tools.

This brief reports on the use of a gender capacity assessment and development methodology and tools in the Ethiopia small ruminant value chain project.

Download the brief: Mulema, A.A., Tafesse, S. and Kinati, W. 2015. Gender capacity assessment and development methodology and tools: The case of Ethiopia. Livestock and Fish Brief 9. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.

Filed under: Africa, Capacity Development, Capacity Strengthening, CRP37, East Africa, Ethiopia, Gender, ICARDA, ILRI, LGI, Small Ruminants, Women

Dairy business hubs in Tanzania – farmer preferences and needs

The Tanzania dairy value chain has been characterized by stagnation in dairy output and milk availability, leading to low milk consumption per capita.

The slow growth in productivity is largely driven by limited access to quality and affordable inputs and services, and output markets, among other factors. Improved organizational models are required to enhance access to inputs and services, increasing farm-level cow productivity and production.

Working closely with development partners, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has developed an approach to collective action, referred to as a dairy business hub (DBH). A DBH contractually binds dairy services to a milk buyer, enabling farmers to access milk markets, as well as inputs and services. The hub model is particularly useful in circumstances in which smallholder producers are scattered and produce low volumes, making it costly for traders/processors, as well as input and business service providers to provide services to farmers.

Success depends on the hub’s adaption to the meet constraints faced by the respective smallholder dairy farmers. Current contracts imposed by milk processors, cooperatives or chilling plants may involve clauses, such as lagged payments (monthly or fortnightly) or other quality standards, unattractive to some farmers. Some farmers may also prefer a milk marketing arrangement, accompanied by input and/or service provision to alleviate the onerous capital constraints.

This study sought to determine the types of dairy business hubs smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania would prefer and need.

Download the brief: Rao, E.J.O., Mtimet, N., Twine, E., Baltenweck, I. and Omore, A.O. 2015. Cattle keepers’ preference for dairy business hub options in Tanzania. ILRI Research Brief 56. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.

Filed under: Animal Products, Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, ILRI, Innovation Systems, LGI, Livestock, Markets, PTVC, Southern Africa, Tanzania, Value Chains

Vietnam study confirms benefits of pig production practices

Communities exposed to better and safer pig production knowledge have increased their production, according to preliminary findings by researchers from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA).

ILRI's Thinh Nguyen facilitates an FGD in Dien Tho

ILRI’s Thinh Nguyen facilitates a focus group discussion in Dien Tho commune (photo credit: ILRI).

The focus group discussions (FGDs) on smallholder pig farming practices were undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish research on pig value chain in Vietnam. The preliminary findings are expected to contribute evidence-based research to an ongoing Livestock Competitiveness and Food Safety Project (LIFSAP) in Vietnam to determine whether exposure to better and safer pig production knowledge and practices is improving smallholder farmers’ livelihoods.

Pig farmers and good animal husbandry practices

Several years into the project, LIFSAP has helped improve the effectiveness of household-based livestock producers. It is a good example of the adoption of technology and upscaling of initiatives. LIFSAP has also reduced environmental impact of livestock production, processing and marketing, and has enhanced food safety and hygiene in livestock product supply chains.

ILRI and VNUA are studying the adoption of Vietnamese Good Animal Husbandry Practices (VietGAHP), which have been introduced and tested among pig farmers in selected provinces in Vietnam. Specifically, the study is assessing adoption of VietGAHP by farmers who have trained with LIFSAP, compared with non-VietGAHP-trained farmers. The study’s approach also includes gender analysis.

FGD in Dien Trung commune

VNUA professor Nguyen Thi Duong Nga at the FGD for women in Dien Trung commune (photo credit: ILRI/Thinh Nguyen).

The review took place in three sites in Nghe An Province: two VietGAHP-exposed communes in Dien Chau District, and one non-VietGAHP-exposed commune in Hung Nguyen District. Guided by a set of qualitative and in-depth questions, in each commune researchers conducted two FGDs and talked to women and men separately in groups of 10. They asked respondents questions about their perceptions, opinions and beliefs related to pig production practices. Using a gender lens, they sought to determine whether viewpoints of men and women would differ on certain topics.

First impressions

Both genders demonstrated the same level of awareness of the general benefits—income generation, employment, manure for cultivation—and losses—environmental pollution—of pig production. However, when it came to production outcomes, those farmers trained in VietGAHP benefitted substantially more in terms of increased income and efficiency in pig raising, a cleaner environment, and enhanced animal health and technical knowledge, as well as material support from LIFSAP.

The FGD participants were also asked whether they found VietGAHP applicable. Those coming from VietGAHP-exposed communes generally did. However, they found a few safety guidelines cumbersome and unrealistic— such as the purchase of piglets from the same certified source and the provision of dedicated equipment for the transportation of pigs. Meanwhile, those in the unexposed commune appreciated the potential benefits and expressed an interest in receiving the same training.

</p> FGD in Hung Thong commune

FGD for men in Hung Thong, a non-VietGAHP-exposed commune (photo credit: ILRI).

Gendered beliefs and practices revealed

A traditional breakdown in the division of labour and in decision-making in smallholder pig farmers were found to be prominent. Heavy tasks such as constructing pig shelters and treating pig diseases were done by men, while ‘lighter’ tasks such as cleaning and feeding were handled by women. The researchers also noted that those who handled the key tasks also tended to be the ones attending training sessions.

But changing patterns in gender differences in decision-making about pig production are emerging. Traditionally, women managed household pig production, while men looked for jobs elsewhere. Expanding production has seen husbands join their wives in the business. Decisions are now generally made based on agreements/negotiations between husband and wife; however, in case of disagreements, the husband retains the last word, reserving his traditional role as final decision-maker.

While the researchers observed that the income from pig production is often held by women, decisions on its use are jointly decided by both husband and wife. Not surprising as the income by smallholder pig farmers is largely used to pay debts accumulated over the production cycle, invest in future production, and pay household expenses.

The focus group discussions, part of the LIFSAF project, funded by ILRI and the World Bank, were conducted by two Hanoi-based ILRI scientists—Lucy Lapar and Thinh Nguyen—and four researchers from VNUA, led by Nguyen Thi Duong Nga, in Nghe An Province on 17-19 September 2015.

For further information, see article on Livestock and Fish Vietnam’s research on pigs in the Central Highlands and North Central Coast.

Filed under: Asia, CRP37, ILRI, Livestock, Pigs, Southeast Asia, Value Chains, Vietnam

Taking stock and looking ahead: Livestock and Fish further develops dairy value chain work in India

Originally posted on ILRI Asia:

The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish recently reviewed its current projects and activities in India and set plans for 2016 and beyond.

At a review and planning meeting held 24-26 September 2015 at the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in Varanasi City in Uttar Pradesh, progress of the Livestock and Fish dairy value chain work in India was assessed.

L&amp;F India planning meeting

    ILRI’s Alok Jha and Steve Staal with Banaras Hindu University officials at the Livestock and Fish India planning meeting (photo credit: ILRI).

The Livestock and Fish program, which is led by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), seeks to improve the livelihoods of smallholder dairy farmers in India by developing value chains, improving access to markets, and conducting training sessions on efficient dairy production methods.

The first day of the meeting started with an inaugural session attended by ILRI and BHU staff and students, where Steve Staal, East and Southeast…

View original 285 more words

Filed under: CRP37

Addressing Egypt’s aquaculture challenges

Critical problems, including water quality and disease prevention, in the $1.5 billion Egyptian aquaculture industry were addressed in a meeting of key stakeholders in Cairo last week.

The second plenary meeting of the Egyptian Aquaculture Innovation Platform, organized by WorldFish, addressed concerns affecting the industry and set out a series of action items in order to move towards a country-wide aquaculture plan.

Read the full article

Filed under: Aquaculture, CRP37, Egypt, Fish, Innovation Systems, Middle East, North Africa, Value Chains, WorldFish

Livestock and Fish 2014 report on progress and results

The Livestock and Fish program’s third annual ‘performance monitoring report‘ provides insights into its progress, results and challenges in the past year.

In its third year in 2014, the program maintained its steady output of research results from its technology platforms to support sustainable livestock and aquaculture intensification, and began reviewing the lessons learned so far in implementing its value chain approach for enhancing impact.

Upstream, new capacity to support research on fish health and feeds has created exciting opportunities for synergies on technical research across the species reflected in a presentation at a fish health meeting and interactions to align the development of processes and procedures in the repository and data system between WorldFish with those at ILRI.

The genetics team succeeded in securing major funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for two new projects on dairy and chicken genetics that seek to demonstrate how new advances and tools in genomics can deliver better-suited breeds to farmers in a shorter time frame.

Downstream, activities were successfully initiated in the Bangladesh aquaculture value chain, strongly complementing the existing work of the Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) CRP. In the better-established sites in Ethiopia, Uganda, Egypt and Tanzania, effort shifted from a focus on assessment to testing of technological and institutional innovations. A CRP-commissioned external evaluation of the program’s value chain approach endorsed the value of the approach and progress achieved, and offered guidance on addressing many of the challenges that remain to fully realize the potential of the approach.

The program has continued to address the challenges cited in the 2013 report, namely adaptively managing the under-resourced components in the ambitious plan of work described in the program proposal, nurturing interdisciplinarity—including mainstreaming gender dimensions—as part of the value chain approach, and establishing a monitoring and evaluation system based on the program’s Theory of Change and appropriate for research-for-development.

To improve integration both across disciplines and between the discovery and delivery components, three of the CRP Themes (Value Chain Development; Targeting Sustainable Innovation; Gender & Learning) were re-organized into two Flagships: Systems Analysis for Sustainable Intensification and Value Chain Transformation & Scaling. This new structure enhances integration of the various cross-cutting, mainly social science activities to work more closely together within the Systems Analysis Flagship, while giving more emphasis to the role of the value chain teams and their engagement with development partners as the Value Chain Flagship. The new Flagships were prepared during 2014 and came into effect in January 2015.

Download the report

See also this update on some highlights in 2014

Filed under: CRP37

Uganda pig farmers trained in biosecurity measures to control African swine fever

Training on Biosecurity_Lira_Uganda

A facilitator prepares disinfectant for use in a footbath to control African swine fever (photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione).

During the rapid value chain assessment of the smallholder pig value chain in Uganda, African swine fever (ASF) was identified as one of the major constraints to pig production. ASF is endemic in Uganda with outbreaks occurring annually. Farmers who are affected by these outbreaks usually face big economic losses as their pigs die en masse. There is neither a vaccine nor a cure for the disease at the moment. The project has identified proper application of biosecurity measures by farmers and other value chain actors as one of the best ways of controlling the disease. But there is inadequate knowledge farmers and other value chain actors on transmission of the disease and its appropriate control measures.

To fill this gap, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and partners developed a trainers manual for smallholder farmers in order to increase their knowledge of biosecurity practices. To further test the effectiveness of this training package on change in smallholder farmers’ knowledge and practices, a Randomized Control Trial study was implemented in Masaka and Lira districts. It is against this background that pig farmers in the treatment groups participating in the study were trained. During the training, participatory tools were used including group discussions, case studies and demonstration, brainstorming, session stories and practical/observations. Eight hundred farmers in Masaka and 356 farmers in Lira were enrolled in the activity. Refresher training is planned for January 2016 with the same farmers.

Biosecurity training against ASF in Uganda

A training session on control of spread of African swine fever in Lira, Uganda (photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione).

Prior to the training of farmers, ILRI organized a two-day training of extension staff to equip them with knowledge of the training package and delivery methods that will be used to train the pig farmers. In addition, technicians from other institutions including CHAIN Uganda, Voluntary Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), Mukono Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MUZARDI) and ADINA Farm that work with ILRI and pig farmer in implementing project activities, participated in the training.

Five male and five female extension officers were trained in both districts to carry out the training. The technicians from CHAIN, VEDCO and MUZARDI will train farmers as part of the RTB-Endure sub project on the use of sweetpotato silage as a pig feed. This initiative is a collaboration between the International Potato Centre (CIP), ILRI and ADINA farm and targets farmers who are involved in their projects in Lira District.

Filed under: Africa, Animal Diseases, Animal Health, ASF, Capacity Development, Capacity Strengthening, CRP37, East Africa, FSZ, ILRI, LGI, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Uganda butchers trained through partnership with Veterinarians Without Borders

Training of pork butchers in Uganda by VWB

Participants of the butcher training by Veterinarians Without Borders and ILRI (photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione). 

To a good number of Ugandans, pork is a delicacy; consumed in various forms, this meat is revered for both its taste and nutritive value. In fact a research study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reveals that the per capita consumption of pork in Uganda is about 3.4 kg per year, the highest in East Africa. To date, more pork than beef is consumed in Uganda. Kampala, the Ugandan capital has the highest number of ‘pork joints’ in the country –establishments where pork prepared in different forms (deep-fried, roasted or barbecued) is served.

All is not rosy however; numerous capacity and structural constraints at the slaughter and trade nodes of the pig value chain continuously pose a risk to the quality of pork in most parts of Uganda. For instance, the country has only one centralized pork slaughterhouse at the Wambizzi pig cooperative society in Kampala that supplies the bulk of the pork consumed in the city and its suburbs.

For the other towns, most of the pork supplies originate from backyards where pigs are slaughtered on makeshift slabs or on the ground; to put it mildly, the pork handling and waste disposal leaves a lot to be desired. Furthermore, efforts by the government to ensure that proper pork handling and hygiene standards are upheld through inspection of pork butcheries and pig slaughter places have been further watered down by capacity and knowledge gaps among pork butchers and traders.

To counter some of these challenges, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has partnered with Veterinarians Without Borders (VWB), Mukono Local Government and the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries (MAAIF) to train pork butchers in Mukono District on pork hygiene, carcass handling and biosecurity practices.

The training was conducted on 18 and 19 August 2015. Ahead of this training, four veterinary medicine students from Michigan State University and one from Makerere University, all working for VWB, made a preliminary visit to the project sites to collect field data throughout Masaka, Mukono and peri-urban areas around Kampala that would be used to aid the design of a training manual for pork butchers in Uganda. The manual comprises an overview of the One Health Initiative, proper post-mortem exam techniques, common endemic and zoonotic diseases of importance to pork butchers in Uganda, important hygiene and sanitation protocols, and biosecurity practices.

Among the places that the VWB team visited were three pork butcheries and a private slaughter slab in Masaka District where they observed the traders’ efforts at hygienic handling through use of concrete slaughter slabs and hot water, however, there still were challenges in waste management as indicated by the poor drainage systems. In addition the pork at the butcheries was not adequately shielded from dust and flies which further degraded its quality. The VWB team made an extra effort to refurbish an old pork butchery, transforming it into a model low-cost outlet that will serve as a point of reference for butchers seeking to construct better outlets that conform to both safety and sanitary standards as approved by the district authorities.

Training of pork butchers Uganda

Demonstration of standard pig slaughtering during the training (photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione).

Forty seven butchers from the Mukono municipality, where most pork from the district is consumed, participated in the training that aimed at equipping butchers with the best practices in pig slaughtering, pork handling and biosecurity.

On day one, the training covered hygiene and sanitation at the slaughter slab; personal hygiene; carcass handling and biosecurity for the control of African swine fever. On day two, practical slaughter techniques to enhance hygiene, carcass handling, and biosecurity practices were organized at a slaughter place, where a demonstration was done to show butchers how hygiene and biosecurity can be improved at slaughter slabs.

A biosecurity package containing nylon cutting board, a basin, a bottle of JIK disinfectant, brush and serviettes was given to butchers. To monitor changes in knowledge and practices of butchers after the training, a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey was undertaken with butchers prior the training. Also, all butcheries of the municipality were geo-referenced for follow up and monitoring of practices.

Participants expressed willingness to from an association and requested support from the local government and other development institutions in the district to support the process.

Filed under: Africa, Animal Products, Capacity Development, Capacity Strengthening, CRP37, East Africa, ILRI, LGI, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Gender integration in aquaculture research and technology in Bangladesh

This working paper from WorldFish assesses how gender has been integrated within aquaculture technology interventions in Bangladesh. It draws out existing knowledge, identifies research gaps, and selects practices to build upon–as well as practices to move away from. The paper aims to contribute to the development of aquaculture technology dissemination methodologies that strengthen and underpin women’s participation in aquaculture. Download the working paper
Filed under: Aquaculture, Asia, Bangladesh, CRP13, CRP37, Fish, Gender, South Asia, Value Chains, Women, WorldFish

Pig value chains in Uganda – farmer case stories

Pig production is a major source of livelihoods for over 1.1 million households in Uganda. Mainly kept by smallholder farmers under backyard systems, the pig is preferred because it grows fast, and eats leftover food and crop residues. In recent years, the Livestock and Fish program has worked in Uganda with partners to improve the livelihoods, incomes and assets of smallholder pig producers, particularly women, in a sustainable manner, by increasing productivity, reducing risk, and improving market access in pig value chains (more on this project).

Meet some of the farmers involved in the program:

Madrine Nabayinda, 29 lives with her mother in Kagezi village, Kabonera sub-county of Masaka district.

She started pig farming in June 2014 with 20 two- month-old piglets using money she got from crop harvest sales and labour she provided off-farm.

She was driven by the need to better her financial condition from dependence to self-reliance. Her farm has grown to 15 sows, one boar and 45 piglets.

Madrine was one of the pig farmers trained by the project on utilisation of planted forage as a feeding option for pigs. She planted five forage species; Mulato, Lablab, Canavalia, Clitoria and Mulberry grown on a total acreage of about 0.5 acres and harvest close to 100kgs every two weeks. The rest of the five-acre plot of land is occupied by the family house and their crop farm where maize, sweetpotato, coffee, cassava, bananas and beans are grown.

She says that the fodder has offered her some relief to the feed challenge. When the price of commercial feed rises, she cuts back on the quantities she buys and uses more of the planted forages supplemented by a bit of the purchased feed. During the rainy season, the forage grows faster and she often sees no need to buy commercial feed. In her opinion, Mulato seem more resilient and tolerant to harsh conditions like dry spells and is indeed preferred by pigs to the other forage species. She plans to increase the acreage of planted forages to over an acre because she believes it will solve her pig feed dilemma.

Kabonera Sub County where Madrine lives has had recurrent outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF). This highly fatal disease in domestic pigs is feared by many farmers because of its high mortality rate, with the potential to wipe out an entire herd within days. Madrine shares this fear and has taken all necessary precautions within her means borrowing lessons she learnt from the training on biosecurity measures for the prevention of ASF, which was conducted for over 800 farmers in Masaka district.

Using old tin roofing materials, she has constructed a fence around her sties to keep out unauthorized visitors and restrict entry by stray animals. Additionally she utilizes a foot bath whereby all visitors to the farm must step in a trough containing disinfectant to minimize chances of pathogen transmission into her pig farm.

Madrine is quite optimistic that if the current pig market challenges are streamlined she will scale new heights of pig production to become a model large scale pig producer.

Margaret Ddungu has reared pigs for over 15 years starting with one sow and no sty. She now has 9 sows, a boar and 8 piglets that she keeps in a wooden sty. At 50, she seems not to have lost any of her youthful energy going by the speed at which she feeds her pigs. Her husband helps out with the dairy enterprise, chopping fodder for their 2 heifers while Margaret tends to the pigs. Their three sons are away at school.

Her pigs have been good to her, from the pig sales; she’s been able to raise school fees for her sons and money for her daily domestic needs. The couple is unable to find cheap labour and therefore tend to their crop farm where they grow coffee, bananas, maize and cassava. The farm provides food for the household and extra income when the crops are sold off at the time of harvest.

Her first contact with ILRI was in 2013 when she participated in the value chain assessment. Her most pressing challenge was access to quality and affordable feeds for her pigs. Her pigs were fed largely on crop residues, kitchen swill and sometimes maize bran that she bought when she had extra cash.

She participated in a training organized by CIAT and ILRI where she was taught how to plant forage on her farm. Among the varieties she planted were Canavalia brasiliensis, Clitoria ternatea, Lablab purpureus, Brachiaria Mulato and Mulberry.

Unfortunately, her forage garden was adversely affected by recent dry spells. All was not lost though, the more resilient species like Mulato and lablab survived.

“My pigs love the forage, but seem to prefer Mulato. I have been able to save on my expenses for feeds by a third of the previous cost” Margaret says.

She adds that her pigs are growing faster than before she started feeding them on the forage. She plans to increase the land allocation to planted forages to a whole acre.

Kato Muwonge, 49 has kept pigs for the past 23 years. To him pig keeping is more of a business, it is a lifestyle.

Though he started off with tethering, he later upgraded to intensive pig rearing in sties after getting training by the government-led National Agricultural Advisory Services in 2003.

He currently keeps 6 pigs as part of his 5 acre-large farmland. He also engages in crop farming and grows sweetpotato, cassava, bananas, coffee, paw paw and avocado.

The pig enterprise has provided money for his children’s school fees and he was able to start a poultry farm and retail shop for his wife out of the pig sales.

Kato has faced numerous challenges: In 2001 his farm was hit by African swine fever that wiped out his entire herd. He resumed pig keeping in 2003. He is also challenged by the scarcity and poor quality of pig feeds. He finds feeding both costly and time-consuming because it takes time to locate a reliable feed stockist as many retailers in the neighbourhood sell adulterated feed. He also lacks proper housing for his pigs. The one-acre plot of land that he owns is split between his crop farm, residential house, poultry enterprise and the pig farm.

To feed his animals, he joined training courses by ILRI and partners on feed formulation using locally available feed resources, planting and utilization of forages as well as making sweetpotato silage. He planted Mulato, Lablab, Canavalia, Clitoria and Mulberry on a 40ft x 50ft plot of land. Mulato and Lablab leaves seem to be preferred by his pigs while he often disguises the rest of the forage species with sweetpotato vines and other crop residues.

Muwonge has also made sweetpotato silage by compounding and ensiling sweetpotato vines and tubers, cassava, pawpaws and avocado. These different formulations and planted fodder have enabled him spend less on commercial feeds.

“Initially, I fed each pig on 3 kg of maize bran per day, now with the different forages and silage I use between 1.5 and 2kg of maize bran per pig per day. I save about Ugs. 5,400 on feeding per day,” he says.

Kato is vice chairperson of the Kabonera-Kyanamukaaka pig farmers’ cooperative society. It is piloting a pig business hub in Kabonera Sub County where they hope to collectively sell their pigs and jointly purchase farm inputs and services. The group has already embarked on joint purchase of brewers’ waste as an option for their pig feeds.

Though very optimistic about this enterprise, Kato seeks support for proper pig housing and water harvesting technology to solve his farm’s water problem.

More news and updates from the Uganda projects

Reports and outputs from the Uganda projects

Filed under: Africa, ASSP, CRP37, East Africa, ILRI, LGI, Livestock, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Livestock and Fish pig value chain activities in Uganda

A smallholder pig farmer tends to her animal

Pig production is a major source of livelihoods for over 1.1 million households in Uganda. Mainly kept by smallholder farmers under backyard systems, the pig is preferred because it grows fast, and eats leftover food and crop residues.

It can generally convert poor resources into a high-value animal-source food for sale or home consumption. For many farmers, the pig is a living bank because it can easily be sold for cash to meet domestic financial needs such as school fees and it provides financial capital required to grow crops.

Uganda’s per capita consumption of pork is the highest in East Africa at 3.4 kg per capita per year. However, growth of the pig value chain is limited by various production, marketing, policy and institutional constraints.

In recent years, the Livestock and Fish program has worked in Uganda with partners to overcome these constraints. This work has been supported by the European Commission, the International Fund for International Development and Irish Aid.

The program’s work in Uganda seeks to improve the livelihoods, incomes and assets of smallholder pig producers, particularly women, in a sustainable manner, by increasing productivity, reducing risk, and improving market access in pig value chains. The initial  EC-IFAD funded (2011-2013) project was implemented in three districts – Kamuli, Mukono and Masaka A follow-on (2014-2016) Irish Aid funded project builds on the results with two additional districts, Lira and Hoima. Both projects have been implemented in collaboration with the “Safe Food Fair Food” (SFFF) project on pork safety and zoonoses.

Activities implemented by the project include:

  • Situational analysis. The study analyzed past trends; current status and the likely future directions in pig value chains in Uganda; and identified the underlying challenges and opportunities faced by different actors in the smallholder pig production value chains at national and regional levels.
  • Outcome mapping. A 2012 workshop identified partner commitment to the project and designed implementation strategies to cause desired behavioural changes in the three selected districts.
  • Assessing value chains. A toolkit to analyze the pig value chain in Uganda was developed and 1,400 pig farmers from 35 villages in the three districts were surveyed. The toolkit has been implemented to an additional 1,550 pig farmers from 18 villages in Lira and Hoima districts. The study characterized the smallholder pig systems, the role of pigs in people’s livelihoods, gender roles and decision making, as well as perceptions on food safety, nutrition and zoonoses. The study helped to identify constraints and potential entry points to improve the value chain.
  • Benchmarking. The pig value chains benchmarking surveys in the three districts highlighted the different players, identified information gaps regarding value chain performance, identified constraints along the value chains, and obtained baseline information for monitoring outcomes arising from interventions. A total of 863 pig value chain actors including feed and drug stockists, farmers, breeding boar service providers, pig traders, pork retailers, and village veterinary service providers were covered.
  • Assessing animal health and pork safety. The project sampled sera, blood and faeces from 1,200 pigs and 90 village boars to determine the prevalence of and risks associated with the main diseases and zoonoses that affects pigs in Uganda, i.e., African swine fever (ASF), porcine cysticercosis as well as internal and external parasites. A biobank of pig specimens including blood, serum and faeces was established for further study.
  • Characterizing local feed resources. To compile information on the nutritive value of locally-used feeds and to test the quality of commercial feeds and feed ingredients, 220 samples of different local feed resources were analyzed. This showed a wide variation in quality of feed ingredients often leading to sub-standard diets. Further, knowledge gaps were researched and field studies with pig farmers assessed the integration of forages in crop-pig production systems. This confirmed that forages (“weeds”, legumes and grasses) are important components in pig feeding systems so improved forages have been introduced and, so far, about 120 pig farmers have planted small plots of improved forages.
  • Developing training modules. Seven training modules covering key capacity constraints identified in the value chain were developed and serve as the curriculum of courses run by various extension and other service providers such as Pig Production and Marketing Uganda Ltd.
  • Assessing capacity building outcomes of implementation of biosecurity protocols for ASF control. The study aims to identify hotspots for ASF transmission and spread along the pig value chain, as well as feasible biosecurity measures for disease prevention. Randomized Controlled Trials are being undertaken with around 2,000 smallholder farmers.
  • Improving waste management. With the SFFF project, the only urban pig slaughterhouse in Uganda is piloting ways to make better, and safer, use of abattoir waste. These include a biogas digester, studies on energy demand, and assessments of the use of the biodigester on pork safety.
  • Assessing the feasibility of pig business hubs and a model pig abattoir. Two consultants were hired to design a centralized slaughter facility and the development of a business plan for the operation of the abattoir as a private-public partnership. One of the consultants is also carrying out scoping and feasibility studies as well as necessary baseline activities to pilot test a pig business hub that will improve market linkages and business development services for the Kabonera-Kyanamukaka pig farmers cooperative.
  • Establishing multi-stakeholder platforms. National and regional platforms were established in 2014 to foster and support collective participation of all pig value chain actors and stakeholders in resolving various production, marketing and policy constraints in the pig industry. Having identified feed as the main constraint, the platforms are lobbying the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries to revise the feeds policy to enforce quality standards of pig feeds.
  • Predicting live weight of animals. A study to develop body weight prediction equations based on various body measurements showed that live weight can be accurately estimated using two or more pig body measurements. That estimation tool will empower pig farmers by providing them with an accurate estimate for the animal live weight and giving them better bargaining power when selling their pigs. The next steps are to develop an App for farmers to get the estimates from an ICT provider, and to develop equations relating live weight with carcass weight, as traders estimate the latter while bargaining with farmers.
  • Assessing consumer access to pork and animal source foods, and intra-household control of resources for enhancing food and nutrition security: In collaboration with Agriculture for Nutrition and Health CGIAR Research Program, a household survey covering 600 households was carried out to identify consumer constraints in accessing animal source foods and intra household control of resources. The evidence from this study will be used to identify nutrition related interventions for improving food and nutrition security.

More news and updates from the Uganda projects

Reports and outputs from the Uganda projects

Filed under: Africa, ASSP, CRP37, CRP4, East Africa, Food Safety, ILRI, LGI, Livestock, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Mapping the Tanzanian dairy industry: Farming systems, infrastructure and natural resources

Community members in Lushoto carrying out participatory mapping

With a concerted effort to improve livelihoods through the Tanzanian dairy industry, there is a need to understand the current state of the industry and related environmental resources, and how these may change as the industry develops.

In a series of workshops, industry stakeholders recently gathered to map the location of dairy farming systems, prominent farms, dairy industry infrastructure and natural resources. Stakeholders then worked through scenarios of how the industry could develop over a 10 year time horizon – mapping the associated changes.

These workshops are detailed in two documents, one focused on the Tanga region and another focused on Morogoro and surrounding districts, with translations available in Kiswahili. The maps have been made publicly available through the ILRI geoportal.

Story by Simon Fraval

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Filed under: Africa, ASSP, Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, Environment, ILRI, Impact Assessment, Livestock, Research, Southern Africa, Systems Analysis, Tanzania, Targeting

Livestock and Fish research-for-development highlights in 2014

In 2014, Paula Kantor was a key member of the program’s gender team, researching gender-transformative approaches in livestock and fish value chains. She tragically lost her life in Afghanistan in 2015.

From 2012-2014, the CGIAR Livestock and Fish Research Program was structured in six Themes, three of which support the principal technology drivers of productivity and intensification in livestock and aquaculture systems: Animal health, animal genetics and feeds and forages.

The other Themes (gender, learning and impact; targeting sustainable interventions; value chain development, ) apply a mix of biological and social science to address key dimensions associated with pro-poor value chain development and intensification and ensuring more effective agricultural research-for-development that translates into impact.

Looking back  to 2014– and across the whole program portfolio – we identified three main activity areas were we worked. We also launched an important cross-cutting  ‘gender initiative’ to help our researchers make their interventions gender-equitable.

  1. Tools were developed to support livestock and fish value chain diagnosis and interventions, including: Establishing a feed and forages technology platform; developing toolkits supporting livestock and fish value chain (VC) assessment; and testing cell-phone technologies to capture livestock performance information and provide feedback to key actors.

The several platforms, tools, and approaches: 1) helped generate rigorous situation and demand assessments, 2) guided technology development and intervention priorities and decision making by different actors and 3) gave public access to data, toolkits and models for wider use.

These activities resulted in: Wider access to simple tools to assess and prioritize feed resources, test phenotypes for feed and fodder quality traits and establish price–quality relationships for a wide range of feeds and forages; a set of publicly-accessible tools and approaches for VC assessment and benchmarking, animal – source food participatory rural assessment and gender value chain analysis; and a method for farmers to collect and access real time data on their cattle’s performance, informing their decision making on the future genetic improvement of their animals. The toolkits were the basis for consistent and comparable cross-country VC assessment and intervention prioritization in nine countries; they are also being promoted and taken up beyond CGIAR by VC practitioners and service providers.

  1. Science and technology solutions to livestock and fish challenges were discovered, including: generating evidence linking livestock and fish investments with poverty reduction; developing an improved diagnostic test for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) disease of cattle and a model to control it; controlling outbreaks of African Swine fever (ASF) in Uganda; analyzing genomic and quantitative genetics of livestock resources in East Africa; increasing feed and forage quantity and quality with reduced and even positive environmental footprints; and making better use of available feed resources.

The evidence published in World Development shows that there is a link between poverty aquaculture investments and poverty reduction. This is important as aquaculture was previously considered by some people as unlikely to benefit those with low incomes because of a tendency to produce large, high value fish.

The other activities are significant milestones in addressing either animal health, feed or genetics challenges identified in one or other of the program’s nine target value chains: The work on CBPP led to reagents being tested to perform in a range of field-based diagnostic formats as well as performance requirements for tools to control the disease. This is important as the reagents are a necessary first step to develop an improved, commercially available diagnostic test, which itself is essential to control the disease. The ASF work in Uganda led to a list of key factors to avoid and use to control ASF outbreaks as well as training and other materials that are being used to sensitize farmers and other value chain actors to adopt evidence-based biosecurity measures and create incentives to report suspected cases.

The genomics is generating data and guidance to help match best dairy cattle breeds for given production environments. The feeds and forages work identified new food-feed and forage cultivars to improve livestock productivity and reduce feed costs without additional land and water requirements and with reduced biological nitrification inhibition. The work on feed and forage options that increase intake of on-farm feed resources, reduce feed wastage and increase mill production is an important step in matching feed processing options with on-farm needs and available infrastructure.

These activities resulted in: Wider access to simple tools to assess and prioritize feed resources, test phenotypes for feed and fodder quality traits and establish price–quality relationships for a wide range of feeds; a set of publicly-accessible tools and approaches for VC assessment and benchmarking, animal-source food participatory rural assessment and gender value chain analysis; and a method for farmers to collect and access real time data on their cattle’s performance, informing their decision making on the future genetic improvement of their animals.

  1. Livestock and fish research interventions were delivered in development settings, including: Identifying and testing best bet practices in fish production and marketing in Egypt; identifying critical animal source food policy bottlenecks with stakeholders in Tanzania and Uganda; and delivering disease-free breeding stock to shrimp farmers in Bangladesh.

These activities comprised: Technologies, capacity building, group formation interventions to support informal women fish retailers in Egypt where an improved strain of Nile tilapia has been adopted by at least 1200 fish farms, six women retailer groups are functioning, and 2000 farmers and pond workers were trained on best management practices; national alliance building and establishment of platforms assisting stakeholders identify and address critical bottlenecks (such as the Tanzania Dairy Development Platform, Uganda Pig Producers Association platform); and delivery of 449 million White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)-free shrimp post larvae (tested by polymerase chain reaction – PCR) to Bangladeshi farmers through shrimp hatcheries and traders (and advised 50000 farmers on ways to prevent WSSV and the need to stock tested post larvae).

Some results? In Egypt, the program disseminated a genetically-improved strain of Tilapia, provided training for and by private sector partners and developed a business case for similar interventions in other countries; the policy work in Tanzania and Uganda is important as it helps build political acceptance that increasing livestock and fish productivity and achieving better-performing value chains can be accomplished through investment in actions supporting smallholders and small-scale entrepreneurs; in Bangladesh, the disease control activities led to policy change with the Department of Fisheries with the Department of Fisheries making it mandatory for all shrimp hatcheries to only supply healthy seed to farmers.

  1. Gender analysis was linked to action: The study “From gender analysis to transforming gender norms: using empowerment pathways to enhance gender equity and food security in Tanzania” analyzed the impact of a crop and goat intervention on household gender relations among participating livestock keepers and agriculturalists.

Findings show that the introduction of the dairy goats increased the workload of women and children, had positive impacts on the independence and perceived food security of both women and men, and increased women’s decision-making. However, these changes were limited in depth and scope, and did not question or challenge normative perceptions of gender-based roles. The study suggests the adoption of participatory and transformative approaches to gender analysis that builds empowerment pathways from the ground up while simultaneously working to influence the social environment in which movement along those pathways can be realized. The study is an important step in establishing an evidence base supporting CGIAR gender research on gender transformative approaches (GTA).

Recognizing that the Program was giving insufficient attention to gender, it initiated a gender action plan for gender mainstreaming. Working with specialists from Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Themes assessed mainstreaming opportunities, held a writeshop to introduce livestock researchers to gender mainstreaming concepts, and established a group of ‘Gender Fellows’ interested to integrate gender analysis and perspectives in their own research.

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Filed under: CRP37, Fish, ILRI, Livestock, Livestock-Fish, Research

Livestock and Fish program evaluation reviews successes in Vietnam and seeks new research opportunities

L&F Vietnam external evaluation

The evaluation team visited parts of the pork value chain as part of their review of the achievements of the program since its commencement in Vietnam in 2012 (photo credit: ILRI).

This year, the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish is undergoing an independent external evaluation to assess the phase one implementation of the program.

As part of the review, the evaluation team visited the Livestock and Fish value chains development research sites in the North Central Coast and the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The evaluation team was led by Anni McLeod, a livestock policy expert, and included Julie Fitzpatrick, an animal health expert. Vietnam is one of nine focus countries of the five flagship areas of the Livestock and Fish program, which is led by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

The evaluation team met with ILRI partners in Vietnam on 29 June to discuss achievements of the program since its commencement in Vietnam in 2012. Field visits to two sites in Vietnam—Ea Kar District in Dak Lak Province and Dien Chau District, Nghe An Province—took place from 30 June to 2 July. Hanoi-based ILRI scientists Lucy Lapar, Fred Unger and Thinh Nguyen, accompanied the evaluation team. A feedback meeting after the field visits with the evaluation team and ILRI was held on 3 July in Hanoi at the ILRI office where Steve Staal and Hung Nguyen were also present.

Role of native pigs in the Central Highlands

The Central Highlands, including Dak Lak and Dak Nong provinces, is a relatively new ILRI site, where the development of indigenous pig production is being explored as an area of focus in Livestock and Fish.

Traditionally and historically, in Dak Lak, pigs are raised as free-range livestock, but this practice has been criticized for causing environmental damage and spreading diseases, some of them zoonoses, and local policy has instituted the ban of free-grazing pigs. As a response, smallholder farmers have made the switch to raising indigenous pigs that are stall fed with cut-and-carry feeds. But this new setup is costly, making native pig production less profitable.

ILRI was advised by the evaluation team to undertake a comprehensive study on potential indigenous pig markets inside and outside Dak Lak province, as a basis for sustainably developing an indigenous pig production system and market in the region. A scoping study recently completed by ILRI with Vietnamese collaborators in Tay Nguyen University shows there is a potentially large market for indigenous pigs (e.g. Soc), which are used for specialty dishes in urban centers like Ho Chi Minh City and Buon Ma Thuot in Dak Lak (note: reference link to L&F wiki for this technical report here).

In Dak Lak, the team also visited Truong Xuan cooperative—a successful business model engaged in wild pig production (a crossbreed of imported wild boar from Thailand and wild sow or indigenous sow (e.g., Soc) from Vietnam). This Dak Lak-based cooperative has 100 member households and is expanding to Dak Nong province.

Ethnic minorities are involved in wild pig production in the area, and their success can be attributed to selling 50% of their pigs and meat products to other provinces. Cooperative members are also expected to comply with strict methods on pig raising and slaughtering to ensure food safety.

Thriving pig production in the North Central Coast region

The evaluation team with ILRI staff then moved north to Nghe An Province, in the North Central Coast region, where two communes in Dien Chau District, namely, Dien Tho and Dien Trung, were visited. In these communes, pig production plays an important role, accounting for around 40% of total GDP.

The evaluation team met with heads of the commune, animal health team and slaughterhouse and farmers applying ‘Vietnamese good animal husbandry practices (VietGAHP)’, a set of guidelines for best practices in pig production that has been rolled out to selected provinces in the country under a Livestock Competitiveness and Food Safety Project (LIFSAP).

As part of LIFSAP, wet markets and small and medium slaughterhouses have also been upgraded and ILRI is organizing a survey of pig producers to evaluate VietGAHP as a potential best-bet intervention under the Livestock and Fish project.

The evaluation team also met with two representatives from Nghe An Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD), who expressed interest in collaborating with ILRI in assessing the effectiveness of the first phase of LIFSAP.

The DARD team acknowledged ILRI’s role in helping change perceptions of the local authority on the role of small-scale pig production through the ILRI-led pig sector studies in Nghe An, and said they are exploring using workshops/meetings to further disseminate these research findings.

The Vietpigs blog has more details on Livestock and Fish value chains research in Vietnam.

Filed under: CRP37, ILRI, Impact Assessment, Livestock, Livestock-Fish, Pigs, Research, Southeast Asia, Value Chains, Vietnam