CRP 3.7 News

Setting priorities and plans for the Livestock and Fish smallholder pig value chain program in Uganda

ILRI Uganda Strategic Implementation and Planning Meeting

Participants discuss ideas and plans to improve the value chain project

Last week (14 and 15 May), key actors and stakeholders working in the smallholder pig value chain value chain met up in Kampala to review progress and set out plans and priorities.  Discussions were organized around the program’s five flagship activities.

The introductions revealed a good mix of participants from national and local government, research, academia, the private sector, extension and service delivery groups, advisory and training institutes, NGOs, slaughterhouse and processing as well as farmer organizations.

Self-review session at the ILRI Uganda pig value chain planning meeting

Contributing to the collective review process

A participatory self-review of the past 15 months generated a graphic representation of the program’s various activities, results and products in the past year.

Some of the highlights included:

  • Implementation of the Irish Aid support ‘more pork in Uganda’ project, expanding the existing project to two new districts.
  • Completion of the IFAD-supported Uganda smallholder pig value chain development project.
  • Launch of a new project on silage from sweetpotato to overcome seasonal feed shortages (with the CGIAR research program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas).
  • Development and production of 7 pig production training manuals (with various public and private partners).
  • Animal health diagnosis and biosecurity work, especially on ASF
  • Carried out feed assessments in four districts and associated forage trials.
  • Published various reports and articles on the insights gained by project staff and partners.
  • Supported Masaka district develop a business plan for a new slaughterhouse to be owned by local farmer associations (see a presentation).
  • Set up and facilitated the operations of 3 district and one national multi-stakeholder pig platforms.
  • Carried out a gender capacity assessment of local implementing partners.

Before moving into planning, outgoing ILRI country representative Danilo Pezo gave an update on the conclusions and recommendations of the external review team that visited the country last year (see presentation). No major changes of course were called for but several specific recommendations around capacity development and entrepreneurship, partner capacities and policy linkages, among others, are being addressed. Participants identified several very promising country-level developments in terms of new projects and greater attention by (local) government and research to the sector.

The planning itself took up much of the remaining time and involved all participants in a rapid ‘visioning’ of the whole program in 2023 followed by in-depth planning of the coming few years work. As the pig and pork sector grows and as the program and other partners attract attention to the sector, it is clear that several very urgent interventions need to be made to 1) ensure year-round feed-security for pigs, 2) deliver appropriate genetic support and artificial insemination services to farmers, 3) upgrade slaughter facilities, 4) address the wider pig health challenges (beyond ASF), 5) address potential health, waste and environment risks in the sector, 6) reinforce the fod security, nutritional and income generation potential of pig rearing for women, and 7) upgrade business and other capacities in the pig innovation system.

The workshop concluded with installation of a national steering committee for the pig value chain program and launch of the seven training manuals.

The steering committee members are:  Nicholas Kauta (Ministry of Agriculture), Loyce Okedi (NaLIRRI), Henry Nsereko (VEDCO), Lawrence Mayega (Masaka Local government) and Denis Mpaire (Makerere University). This team will be expected to help push the the policy agenda for the pig value chain at the national level and work hand in glove with the pig Multistakeholder platforms in elevating the visibility and voice of the pig value chain and its actors.

Finally, Brian Kawuma introduced the training modules; they are:


This work has been anchored around two value chain transformation projects funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (2012-2014) and Irish Aid (2014-2016), a dedicated food safety project funded by the German government and various other specialized projects looking at animal feeds and forages and animal diseases – especially African swine fever (ASF). See more updates.

Filed under: Africa, ASSP, CGIAR, CRP37, East Africa, ILRI, LGI, Livestock, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Livestock and Fish pays tribute to the gender transformative work of Paula Kantor

Paula Kantor (Worldfish) planning Livestock and Fish flagship research

Paula Kantor at the 2014 Livestock and Fish program review meeting

The tragic loss of Paul Kantor during a terrorist attack in Kabul, Afghanistan on Wednesday 13 May have left many of her colleagues in the development world and friends with great sadness.

Paula who joined CIMMYT in February 2015 as a senior scientist (gender and development specialist), was leading CIMMYT’s ambitious new project to empower and improve the livelihoods of women, men and youth in wheat-based systems of Afghanistan, Ethiopia and Pakistan.

Prior to joining CIMMYT, she worked with WorldFish from 2012 and was the WorldFish gender flagship focal point for the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish. Paula passionately supported the Livestock and Fish gender strategy on gender transformative approaches. Her passion and commitment to integrate gender and positively transform the aquaculture value chains to benefit poor men and women in these value chains will be remembered by all who interacted and worked with her.

Paula was absolutely the epitome of a CGIAR scientist through her commitment to excellence in her science and her commitment and patience to improving the quality and meaningfulness of the work done with her colleagues and partners. And what a delightful person. This is a huge loss for us, and I can’t begin to imagine what it is for her circle of family and friends. Tom Randolph, Livestock and Fish Program director.

Her commitment to improving the livelihoods of women in some of the world’s most impoverished regions will be her legacy. Paula’s passing is a loss to the whole development community. Stephen Hall, WorldFish director general.

Energy, commitment and integrity are words that only begin to describe the astute gender and development expert and colleague that Paula was. She was one of a kind and will be sorely missed by those who were fortunate enough to have known her. Maureen Miruka, CARE USA and Livestock and Fish Science and Partnership Advisory Committee member.

Paula brought to the Livestock and Fish gender team the excitement and wisdom of a versed scholar committed to researching gender issues with and for poor farmers. She was committed to improving rural livelihoods while enhancing social and gender equity, dignity, and justice. She practiced these principles in her daily interactions with colleagues. She listened and appreciated opinions, discussed and advanced them to co-create new spaces for social transformation. To those of us who worked with her, Paula provided inspiration, mentorship and friendship. We miss her greatly in our work and life. Alessandra Galie, ILRI social scientist.

Our deepest condolences to her family, friends and colleagues on the loss of a great person.

Filed under: CRP37, Gender, Livestock-Fish, Women, WorldFish

New Livestock and Fish project focuses on chickens in Africa

This week, chick geneticists and researchers are meeting in Addis Ababa to set out plans and deliverables for the African Chicken Genetic Gains project. ACGG is a research-for-development partnership project working in Ethiopia, Nigeria and Tanzania.

It aims to develop public-private partnerships that will contribute improve chicken productivity to benefit smallholders. The project will test and disseminate improved breeds of chickens likely to suit the needs of farmers in low-input systems.

More …

Filed under: ABS, Africa, Animal Breeding, Chickens, CRP37, East Africa, Ethiopia, Genetics, ILRI, Indigenous breeds, Nigeria, Poultry, Southern Africa, Tanzania, West Africa

Value chain development entry points for Tanzania’s dairy sector


Zero grazing farming in Magore village, Tanzania (photo credit: ILRI).

The livestock sector in Tanzania contributed about 6% of the country’s total GDP in 2006. But despite its importance in the country’s economy, the sector faces a myriad of constraints. The dairy market is poorly organized and is characterized by individual small-scale farmers who sell milk directly to market in small quantities and many of them lack the bargaining power associated with economies of scale.

Low access to inputs and services including breeding, feed and animal health are also key constraints. Additionally, the dairy market is unpredictable due to price fluctuations associated with seasonality of milk supply. Most farmers prefer to sell their milk to restaurants and neighbouring households which offer higher prices while the several milk collection centres in the country operate below installed capacities averaging only 30% utilization annually.

Attempts to improve dairy development in the country have fail to address these constraints because most of the approaches used are not pro-poor and do not target pre-commercial producers due to lack of evidence on the most efficient approach. Appropriate organizational models are needed to improve access to inputs and services and market access for farmers to improve their income and achieve food and nutritional security both for the producer households and for poor consumers.

The More Milk in Tanzania (MoreMilkiT) project that is funded by Irish Aid in support of the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish (locally referred to as ‘Maziwa Zaidi’) is helping to address these knowledge gaps. The project is implemented by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Sokoine University of Agriculture, Faida Mali, the Tanzania Dairy Board and Heifer International.

A ‘Rapid appraisal of dairy value chains in Morogoro and Tanga regions in Tanzania’ has identified key entry points for beginning to address the above constraints through focus group discussions. It was conducted across eight villages in Kilosa and Mvomero districts in Morogoro region and in Mvomero and Lushoto districts in Tanga region.

According to the study, in extensive systems, livestock keeping is the most important source of livelihood for farmers followed by crop production and vice versa for intensive and semi-intensive systems. Pastoralists in extensive production systems have relatively good knowledge of animal diseases from oral tradition unlike their counterparts in semi-intensive and intensive systems. In the intensive and semi-intensive systems, gender roles are shared between men and women, whereas in the extensive system there is a clear division of gender roles with women spending many hours managing livestock.

Feed shortage was a common complaint as a result of scarcity of land and water and also because farmers lack knowledge in feed conservation. The study revealed that lack of knowledge on the farmers’ part is a major hindrance to the success of the dairy sector. For example, farmers need training on fodder production and using concentrates by-products of sugarcane (molasses) and rice milling (husks) which are currently not being fully utilized as animal feed.

Also, there is little knowledge on human diseases sourced from animals. Some farmers thought drinking raw milk is safe and could not link consuming raw milk to any zoonotic diseases. The study also found that women make decisions on spending income from milk sales but important decisions related to livestock are jointly made. Most farmers use bulls for breeding and there is need for training on artificial insemination (AI) to improve the quality of livestock.

The report also calls for more awareness to enlighten farmers on the benefits of collective action as a mechanism for enjoying improved access to credit services, inputs and output markets.

These constraints are now being pursued through more in-depth studies under the MoreMilkIT and other Maziwa Zaidi projects including piloting of best-bet interventions and monitoring of related outcomes.

Download the report

Filed under: Africa, ASSP, Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, East Africa, ILRI, Livestock, Livestock-Fish, Markets, Report, Research, Southern Africa, Tanzania, Value Chains, Women

Livestock and Fish introduction to environmental risk analysis in aquaculture report

The report provides a brief and generalized introduction to the specific steps of an environmental risk analysis. This publication is based on materials covered and outputs generated during the workshop on Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools for Aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, which was jointly held by WorldFish and FAO in Siavonga, Zambia on 28 June–2 July 2010 with funding from FOA and the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish.

The workshop was delivered as a training exercise to 17 participants from seven sub-Saharan countries and was designed to highlight current methodologies and tools available for environmental risk analysis in aquaculture development.

A key focus of the workshop was to encourage participants to consider hypothetical but realistic scenarios and to discuss issues relevant to evaluating the environmental risks of a given activity or scenario.

Read the WorldFish post and download the report: Risk analysis in aquaculture: A step-by-step introduction with worked examples

Filed under: Aquaculture, WorldFish

Planning for Livestock and Fish Phase 2: A virtual review and discussion

In March, a CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish phase 2 planning workshop was conducted through a two part process. Initially conceived as a single event, it was rendered into an online format that operated across wide ranging time zones. Download the full report.

This Part 1 event reviewed the program’s work, of the context within which it operates, of opinions relating to key design features, and offered recommendations for research questions, program approaches, model changes and modifications to the theories of change. It worked around two scenario possibilities, namely that Livestock and Fish would continue in much the same form as phase 1, or that it would expand to assume a global animal science agenda. Part 2 will generate first stage ideas for Phase 2 CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish, and make specific plans for the completion of the proposal preparation and submission.

Over 4 days, a series of presentations were made and discussed by participants. Comments from each day’s discussions were summarized and made available as a contribution to the next days’ discussions. As such then, conversations seeded new conversations. The figure below shows the workshop flow.
CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish phase2 planning workshop process flow
For each stage of the process, a summary document was prepared to capture the findings of discussions.

 Review of findings
Following presentations on the Livestock and Fish program work in phase 1, a review of global
development livestock trends and an examination of some key questions, the following observations about the program were made.

Participation: For interventions to be effective, they must be relevant and resonate well with the people Livestock and Fish program are trying to work for and with. The program is not adequately engaging value chain actors or the poor and does need to work better with the poor to understand their demands. The program must better engage with issues of power, inclusivity and governance; use participatory research approaches that build on experiential learning, and engage with relationship networks.

Impact: There is not much impact data so far and it is not clear whether the program is having any impact. The program needs to better measure progress and results. A decent monitoring, evaluation and learning framework is imperative, bearing in mind that it takes considerable time to generate interventions, let alone assess them.

Capacity: For any change intervention to persist, the value chain system must be capable of sustaining such change. At the start of any intervention process, it is important to assess the capacity that is present, where it lies in the system, and the extent to which change is thus enabled or constrained.

Collaboration: Future program design must structure closer linkages between flagships, and between flagships and value chains. Some excellent results have been seen through collaboration with other CRPs, and this needs to be expanded particularly with system CRPs. In value chains, private sector actors play important roles and L&F should be deliberate in seeking common agendas and synergy with them.

Holistic approaches: Research needs to more holistic. Starting from analysis and foresight, our practice must cut across disciplines across flagships.

Technology: There is an imperative to produce more food and biomass. The program is well positioned to support this. Good examples of our technological success so far include B. Humidicola, a tropical grass, O. Niloticus L. Abassa, CLEANED and a range of tools. We must not only seek to invent new technology but research ways to improve access to existing technology.

Policy: Research must better engage with policy processes. Currently, this is not happening.

Nutrition: The nutritional impact of the program’s research should be better understood and deliberate. Work to understand nutrition should use demographic and consumption data, and explore how ASFs are prepared in homes.

Scale: Systems transformation is much more than optimizing production and efficiency. The program needs to think about scale from the beginning of the technology generation process, look for scaling potential early on, and build knowledge alliances with development partners to foster scale.

Value chains – A systems approach: Research through value chains has been effective, and should continue. However the program’s research has not sufficiently explored system wide issues.

Theories of change: Livestock and Fish will need different change pathways for intensification and resilience. However there is concern that such pathways assume predictability and linearity.

Comparative analysis: The way that Systems Analysis for Sustainable Innovations (SASI) and Value Chain Transformation and Scaling (VCTS) are structured does not enable comparison and learning across value chains, and this is not happening. A coherent agenda should be defined.

Demand orientation: Livestock and Fish research needs to be more demand driven. There is considerable demand for quick solutions, yet our centre supply driven focus is mainly on long term solutions. While both are important, we need to find a better balance. One way to better meet demand is to research ways of quickly using existing solutions for quick wins.

Knowledge and data: ICT offers great opportunity to get better real time data, build two-way communication between data sources and users, and access the insight of other people.

Business models: Livestock and Fish research needs to be better embedded within business models if it is to be sustainable. Business cases are needed to show how impact is achieved, to better sell research work to donors and to engage private sector interest.

Critical mass: The program has achieved it best results in value chains where it has leveraged bilateral resources. It some places, it has been difficult to secure bilateral funds.

Research versus development: The boundary between development and our research is not as clear as it should be, and this has had implications on the way in which we have related and set priorities.

By the poor; for the poor: When considering the poor, we must include value chain actors who are not producers, recognize the considerable diversity between poor groups, and that men and women have very different needs. While smallholders remain important, benefits vary across both access to better food and income.

The bigger agenda: There is more that Livestock and Fish can do beyond value chain development. It needs to consider work to improve resilience, minimize loss, improve the environment and promote social equity. For resilience programming, Livestock and Fish will need different frameworks beyond value chains that encompass environmental risk and ecological scarcity.

Power: Dialogue processes for change happen through existing structures and power relationships, and power holders sanction those that break norms. The program should research ways of changing power relationships so that development interventions intervene with a consciousness of power, and be empowering.

The environment: Livestock and Fish needs a robust response to criticism that livestock has a bad effect on environment. The program can engage as an honest broker without being negative or defensive, and frame discussion around planetary boundaries. Its work should address and mitigate negative environmental impacts and convert these into positive impacts.

Intensification: has been a good driver for the program, and the value chain approach has been a good way to do this; but this needs to be better balanced with improved environmental sustainability. What is the right measurement for intensification – by land area, by livestock unit or by the unit of other input?

Focus: The nature and level focus and its contribution to results is an assumption that needs to be researched. In this regard, the program should consider focusing on several species in some countries. There is argument to reduce levels of focus, for too much focus could lead to delivery of results for only a few people. Rather than limiting the number of countries, the program could engage on the basis of ability to work in them, perhaps indicated by the availability of bilateral funding.

Two scenarios were considered for phase 2. For the first scenario, Livestock and Fish would continue in much the same form as it has done in phase 1, with a strong focus on smallholder intensification in a limited number of value chains. For the second scenario, Livestock and Fish would expand to assume a global animal science agenda. For each scenario, four sets of recommendations were made for:

  • Key research areas
  • Promising research to development approaches
  • Proposed changes to the research program model, and
  • Adjustments to the theory of change.

Read more from the workshop report (insert link) that covers part 1 of the process. We anticipate that part 2 will occur after the Consortium Office release of guidelines for Phase 2 planning for all CRPs.

Article contributed by Stuart Worsley

Filed under: CRP37, Livestock-Fish

Livestock and Fish program leadership changes

Animal Health

The Livestock and Fish CGIAR Research Program will be changing its Animal Health Flagship leadership assignment this August. Phil Toye, the current Animal Health Flagship leader will be retiring in August and Barbara Wieland, ILRI team leader herd health,  will take up the leadership assignment.

In this capacity wieland will also take on the role of internal focal point for ILRI’s Livestock and Fish Animal Health Flagship work. Phil will remain as leader and focal point until his retirement, with Barbara acting as leader-designate until then and so will be actively involved in helping to lead the planning process for the future research agenda under the Flagship. Barbara will be responsible for leading strategy development, activity planning and reporting across the centers. She will help to identify and lead partnership and proposal development at the program level.


In the Genetics Flagship, Okeyo Mwai has handed over the ILRI focal point leadership responsibility to Karen Marshall. Mwai, will be giving his full attention to ensuring successful implementation of ILRI’s new Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)-funded project work. Marshall will be providing the program’s perspective to researchers and program leaders responsible for developing work plans and budget, monitors implementation, compiles program reporting, helps identify and lead partnership and proposal development.

Phil and Okeyo have played an important role in initiating and leading the Livestock and Fish Animal Health and Genetics agenda respectively.

Filed under: Animal Health, Components, CRP37, Genetics

Livestock and Fish value chain flagship: Achieving transformation and scale


Artworks by Piet Mondrian: (left) Composition in Blue, Gray and Pink, 1913, and (right) Composition VII, 1913.

In late-March, the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish held a virtual review and planning meeting to take stock of progress since 2012, examine the wider science and development environment and devise plans and deliverables for the coming years. The discussions were organized around each of the five research and technology ‘flagships’ of the program, examining strengths, weaknesses and desired results.

The Value Chain Transformation and Scaling Flagship of the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish works to works to enable innovations for the transformation and scaling of selected livestock value chains in developing countries

What does that transformation look like?

New and enduring forms of inclusive participation, governance and power relations and efficient resource use allow pre-commercial actors and poor consumers to generate, and benefit from, more and better-quality milk, meat, fish and eggs.

New and existing knowledge, used in new ways, says this flagship’s leader, Acho Okike, can help communities and countries upgrade their pig, dairy, small ruminant and fish value chains. ‘Generating this new knowledge is at the business end of this flagship’s work.’

This flagship work is based on learning. As smallholder-oriented innovations in feeds and forages, animal health and animal genetics are deployed within the Livestock and Fish value chains, this flagship explores who uses these innovations and how and how much and to what effect, as well as what constrains adoption of the innovations. The flagship provides ‘safe spaces’ for innovation — idea incubators and small grants — that support entrepreneurs as they test their innovations. Capacity development and gender mainstreaming work hand in hand.

This flagship has ambitions to build a new ‘learning’ model. In a rapidly changing world, where new knowledge, understanding and skills are continuously required, what does a forward-looking learning model look like?

  • One that is agile, responding to changing demands, capacities and knowledge in real-time
  • One that allows learning-by-doing in short cycles
  • One that is transferable and scalable
  • One whose impacts are measurable
Partnership strategy

While scanning widely and engaging in numerous tactical collaborations, particular attention is being given to establishing the foundation for selected strategic partnerships, both globally and within the selected value chains.

Operational partnerships
ILRI and the three other CGIAR centres collaborating in the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish — the Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and the World Fish Center (WorldFish) — have worked in close partnership for two years to deploy appropriate research within nine country-level livestock value chains. In addition, these four CGIAR centres work with other CGIAR research programs, such as those on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS); Humidtropics (HT); Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM); and Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB).

Research partnerships
Partnership negotiations are progressing with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and Wageningen University and Research Centre (Wageningen UR). This flagship also works directly with value chain actors and research partners in the program’s focus countries. For example, Livestock and Fish has established strategic partnerships in Tanzania with Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and the Tanzania Livestock Research Institute (TALIRI) and in Vietnam with Nong Lam University, in Ho Chi Minh City, and Tay Nguyen University, in Dak Lak.

Development partnerships
This flagship has also entered development partnerships with international non-governmental organizations such as the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and CARE International. Partnerships have also been formed with local development actors such as Volunteer Efforts for Development (VEDCO), SNV, the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS), BRAC and the Africa Institute for Strategic Services and Development (AFRISA), in Uganda; SNV, Land O’Lakes and Heifer International in Tanzania; and CARE, in Egypt. Livestock and Fish works closely with the Tanzania Dairy Board to support it in its stewardship of the national Dairy Development Forum in Tanzania. In Bangladesh, collaboration with Save the Children provides nutrition training to households involved in aquaculture training. And the program will continue working with private-sector actors Skretting, Aller Aqua and MAKRO and local private hatcheries to improve business skills among commercial farmers in Egypt; and with DOW AgroSciences, in the USA, to support the breeding of improved Brachiaria grasses.

In the coming two years, the program will extend its development partnerships in value chain sites by establishing multi-stakeholder learning and action platforms that form the basis of joint action in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Mali and Nicaragua and will continue to form new tactical partnerships in Egypt, Tanzania, Uganda and Vietnam.

Virtual discussion

The virtual discussion held in late March 2015 focused on the following topics, as summarized by Stuart Worsley, head of development partnerships for the Livestock and Fish program.

Engaging policymakers and the private sector
Participants pointed to a need to document how they’re interacting with policymakers, what the lessons are, and at what levels they need to engage. All agreed on need to increase public-private partnerships, probably with the support of partner organizations.

Examples of scaling
Examples of scaling include the proposed transfer of fish value chain work going on in Egypt to Ghana. In Bangladesh, better nutritional security among the rural and urban poor has been linked to improved small-scale fish production. And in Tanzania, a Dairy Development Forum is supporting dairy innovations platforms by providing training and widely sharing information.

Is value chain thinking counter to entrepreneurship?
Discussants asked themselves if they needed to rethink the way they look at value chains — to think more ‘out of the box’ to transform systems. Perhaps there’s something about traditional value chain thinking that runs counter to entrepreneurial thinking? Perhaps more than designing steps within predetermined pathways, what’s needed is to learn how to deal better with unpredictability.

Cross learning
The genetics flagship team is helping to bring down disciplinary silos. For example, it has developed upstream technologies based on the needs of specific value chains (e.g. cold-chain-free artificial insemination) and is working directly in value chains, such as those in Vietnam and Uganda, to assess genetic issues and test interventions. One of the most important research contributions this flagship can make, it was noted, is to take a comparative approach to learning across value chains with the same commodity focus, such as pigs in Vietnam and Uganda. Such cross-learning not only helps to generate international public goods but also to avoid duplication of work. It was noted that it would be useful to compare the roles of the different livestock species targeted in Livestock and Fish value chains to determine which have most potential for empowering poor women or improving gender equity.

Expanding the value chains
The question was raised as to whether Livestock and Fish should consider expanding the systems portfolio to include smallholder beef cattle and poultry. This would require developing a convincing business case of (1) the potential for developing inclusive beef and poultry value chains that address national food security and (2) the opportunities for Livestock and Fish to make significant research contributions to these value chains.

More from this flagship

Reports and products from this flagship

Filed under: CRP37, Livestock-Fish, Value Chains, Women

Uganda pig value chain project partners with private sector to boost access to advisory services

Pig farmers training in Matugga_farm visit
Pig farmers’ training course participants visiting a pig farm (photo credit: ILRI/Danilo Pezo).

Advisory services are an important inputs in livestock production. In Uganda, these services were in the past provided mostly by government through the local government extension departments in districts and through the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS). Structural bottlenecks and inadequate funding of the sector, however, have created gaps in extension and advisory service delivery as many smallholder farmers have little or no access to information on production and marketing. Though available in some areas of the country, private extension services are expensive and beyond the reach of many small-scale pig producers.

Although private players and NGOs such as Volunteer Efforts for Development Concern (VEDCO) and World Vision have made interventions in extension service delivery in order to increase productivity, control disease risks and mitigate negative environmental impacts, particularly in water sources, there still remains an unmet need for advisory services among pig farmers at the grass roots.

To address this information gap, the Smallholder Pig Value Chain Development (SPVCD) in Uganda project, which is led by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), has established partnerships with private sector organizations to offer advisory services through trainings for pig farmers and persons interested in taking up piggery as a business.

Since 2012, Pig Production and Marketing (PPM) Uganda, Limited has cut a niche in the promotion of pig production and marketing through building the capacity of pig farmers engaged in both small and medium-scale production. The training courses offered by PPM are demand driven and farmers willingly pay a small fee for the two-day training.

Recently, ILRI collaborated with PPM on a training course on piggery management for small and medium-scale farmers. The training, which was held in Matugga in Wakiso District, central Uganda on 27-28 February 2015, attracted 93 participants (17 females and 76 males) who were mainly pig farmers and people interested in starting up piggeries as an enterprise.

The ILRI-Uganda team contributed to the training program, and three staff (Danilo Pezo, Peter Lule and Joseph Kungu) made presentations based on the recently developed SPVCD training modules.

Pig farmers training in Matugga_Kees Van der Braak
Kees Van der Braak  explaining how to assess business efficiency in pig farming (photo credit: ILRI/Danilo Pezo).

In his opening remarks, Pezo, the SPVCD project leader, described the efforts ILRI and partners are making towards improving the livelihoods, incomes and assets of smallholder pig producers, particularly women, in a sustainable manner, through increased productivity, reduced risk and enhanced access in pig value chains. He also gave a presentation on ‘The strategic use of local feed resources in pig feeding’.

Joseph Kungu, an ILRI graduate fellow and researcher at the National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI) discussed topics related to pig herd health management and pork safety while Peter Lule, a research technician at ILRI, facilitated the event. Other speakers at the training included consultants Kees van de Braak (the Netherlands) and Marc Thyssen (Belgium) who are both affiliated to Breeds, Feeds and Meat Limited, Uganda.

In a related development, the Daily Monitor, a leading newspaper in Uganda, is partnering with Pig Production and Marketing Uganda Ltd to offer a pig farming clinic on 30 May 2015 in Matuga (Wakiso). In the past two years the newspaper has organized clinics on dairy and goat production, and has, this year, decided to organize a clinic focused on new techniques to improve pig production, including the preparation of sweet potato silage for pig feeding, control of parasites and biosecurity measures to control African Swine fever. These topics are part of the ILRI training modules on pig production.

ILRI staff and partners have been invited to make presentations on feeding, animal health and management in this year’s clinic. The event offers an opportunity for making use of training materials developed by the SPVCD in collaboration with national partners and to get feedback from farmers on their relevance.

The set of pig production manuals includes modules on:

Filed under: ASSP, Capacity Development, Capacity Strengthening, CRP37, East Africa, Extension, ILRI, Livestock-Fish, Partnership, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

Standards for collecting sex-disaggregated data for gender analysis: A guide for CGIAR researchers

Developed by the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM), the ‘Standards for collecting sex-disaggregated data for gender analysis: A guide for CGIAR researchers’ spells out ways to collect relevant sex-disaggregated data for five broad research areas:

1.Baseline or descriptive research: What crops are being grown and traded? Who is growing them? Who is trading them? What technologies are being used? What natural resources do they use, and in what ways? What are the policies and institutions that shape the environment in which farmers and consumers make decisions? What are the returns to different forms of production, trade, or livelihood activities?

2.What are the constraints facing farmers? In particular, what are the binding constraints that do not allow farmers to produce and trade more and earn better livelihoods?

3.Where are the opportunities for increased production and livelihoods? Where are the potential areas in which CGIAR could make an impact, whether through technological, institutional, or policy change?

4.How do farmers respond to living in a risky environment? These risks may be environmental such as climate change, economic through markets for both buying and selling goods, political, or personal such as health. How does the risk shape their decisions? Which people are particularly vulnerable?

5.What is the impact of projects, programs, and policies? How can projects be designed and monitored to be gender transformative? How does agricultural innovation affect women’s economic empowerment? Are gender gaps in farm productivity, income, asset ownership, or sustainable intensification changing and why?

Filed under: Components, CRP2, Gender, Women

Feeding hungry, growing animal populations a priority for Livestock and Fish program


Composite of parts of two paintings: Goat’s head in profile (painted and partially glazed on white plate) by Pablo Picasso, and A Fish, by Jean David (both via WikiArt).

In late-March, the Livestock and Fish Research Program held a virtual review and planning meeting to take stock of progress since 2012, examine the wider science and development environment and devise plans and deliverables for the coming years. The discussions were organized around each of the five research and technology ‘flagships’ of the program, examining strengths, weaknesses and desired results.

The feeds and forages flagship is designing superior feed and forage strategies for smallholders to meet current and evolving demands for more meat, milk and fish as well as agile feed value chains with lighter ecological footprints.

All aspects of feed—its production, processing and trading—are of special import in developing countries, where these activities generate scarce jobs and cash, significantly increase the benefits smallholders get from their mixed crop, fish and livestock systems, and allow many people with few other options to escape poverty by participating in an on-going ‘livestock revolution’ by meeting the fast-rising demand in emerging economies for meat, milk, fish and eggs. Moreover, the work of resourcing feeds and feeding animal stock in developing countries is often a female responsibility, with interventions able to empower women and youth directly.

Feed activities also sit squarely at the interface of both the ‘goods’ and ‘bads’ of animal production; this is where many hard trade-offs, such as water and land use, levels of greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity conservation or losses, are negotiated and decided on a daily basis.

Feed activities sit squarely at the interface of both the ‘goods’ and ‘bads’ of animal production—an interface where many hard trade offs are negotiated daily.

The flagship in a nutshell
Challenges: Lack of affordable and adequate quantities of good-quality animal feed is a major problem for the world’s smallholder producers, reducing their competitiveness in livestock markets and their earnings from their livestock and fish enterprises. Choice of feeds and feeding strategies can have major impacts on natural resources (growing feed can significantly deplete water sources) and gender equity (the largest proportion of women time’s spent in livestock production is sourcing feed and/or feeding livestock). Use of ‘crop residues’—the stalks and other remains of crops after their grain has been harvested—for livestock feed can compete with mulching and other soil enhancements. And the type of feed given ruminant animals influences the amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, that they emit.

Options: Improving smallholder access to feed of higher quality (chemically, biologically and physically) as well as to breeds better suited to their environments is the main entry point for intensifying smallholder livestock production, which essentially involves shifting feed used for an animal’s maintenance (where the animal neither gains nor loses body tissues) to its production of meat and other animal-source foods. An animal’s consumption of improved feeds raises its productivity while reducing the greenhouse gases it emits per unit of livestock product. Appropriate feed choices need to be linked to efficient management and use of feed and forage production. Well managed forage plants are one of the best agricultural ways of storing carbon and improved forages can grow in stressed environments unsuitable for food crops, thus obviating the need to displace food production.


Feeds and forages flagship snapshots

Click to view slideshow.

Virtual discussion

In his short overview of the flagship, flagship leader Michael Blümmel, an ILRI scientist, gave a short overview of where things stand. Watch and listen to his audio-enhanced presentation below.



Blümmel explained some of the important changes in this field:

  • Increasing realization that the anticipated and projected increasing production of livestock and fish will not materialize without significant increases in feed resources and feeding strategies.
  • More and more difficulty making such feed increases as competition for biomass increases and the natural resources available for feed production decrease
  • Wider understanding that feed resourcing and feeding have decisive effects on the economy, quality and environmental footprint of producing milk, meat, fish and eggs
  • Confirmation that engagement in feed and forage value chains offers critically important  livelihood options for smallholder and landless farmers, particularly when the latter actively participate in the design and development of these value chains.

He argued that responding to these requires that we match feed biomass with demand for animal-source food under different scenarios and mobilize new biological and social sciences to improve feed resources and feeding strategies.



Progress so far …

According to Blümmel, the flagship has already contributed to:

  • Creation and use of a technology platform and participatory toolkit that helps define feed constraints and opportunities
  • Formation of diverse partnerships needed needed to make better use of existing biomass
  • Development of new forage options (selections and breeding lines) and their desirable traits (biological nitrification inhibition, endophytes)
  • Development of ways to increase biomass quantity as well as fodder and forage quality while reducing the environmental footprints of their production
  • Capitalizing on forage ability to improve carbon balances and natural resource management

It has produced:

  • Tools to estimate feed resources, prioritize feed interventions and refine near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) platforms have been adopted and taken up by several of the system-oriented CGIAR research programs
  • New approaches make better use of existing feed resources on- and off-farm, such as feed processing and supplementation options
  • New options to increase feed and forage biomass quantities with reduced environmental harm, such as newly developed multi-purpose forage and food-feed cultivars, with demonstration of the general absence of trade-offs between genetic traits for high yields of grain and residues in several crop varieties that can feed livestock as well as people
  • Awareness has been raised of the crucial inter-relationships among feed resourcing and strategies, natural resource uses and environmental footprints, and ways to enhance these links for multiple benefits.
  • On the ground, there now exist much more structured, targeted and interactive approaches to feed resourcing and interventions.
  • Superior food-feed crop cultivars have been adopted and further upgraded through feed processing and supplementation options.

Responding to these points, participants pointed to some key notions important to the flagship:

  • Genetic diversity: Genetic diversity can be used not only to generate new forage cultivars – either from grass or legume species – that meet consumer demands but also to replace cultivars that have become sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses and other constraints. Genetic diversity is essential for addressing new and unpredictable climates resulting from global warming.  Among the existing cultivars of cereal and other food crops (sweet potato, cassava), and probably forages, there remains plenty of existing germplasm diversity controlling feed quality—before we need to think about breeding new cultivars. The links between what fish eat and their nutritional value for humans are very strong.
  • Useful tools: Tools to assess the increased quantity and quality of feed required by genetically improved stock and how these changed feed requirements can be best met with few (or positive) environmental impacts are now being used in a scoping study of yield gap assessments ILRI is conducting with CSIRO and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Ethiopia and India. TechFit and FEAST are two such tools, which would benefit from more thoughtful and comprehensive integration of gender issues
  • Paradigm shift in crop breeding: Straw and stover quantity and fodder quality have become additional criteria in the release of new crop cultivars because of the rising monetary value of crop residues (sorghum stover is now being sold in local markets for about 50% of the price of sorghum grain) and the general absence of genetic trade-offs between grain and crop residue traits (we can develop crops with an abundance of both).
  • Environmental goods: Some species of Brachiaria, a tropical grass, are cultivated as forages. Originally from Africa, Brachiaria today is the most widely used tropical grass supporting livestock production in Central and South America. The ability of its deep and vigorous root systems to inhibit nitrification in soils and to reduce nitrous oxide emissions makes it a ‘climate-smart’ grass able to enhance the environment as well as improve milk and meat production yields.
  • Integration: Coordinated work on the health, genetics and nutritional status of animals was underscored as critical because each of these influences the other, with much illness due to poor nutritional status, for example, and under-nutrition causing much illness and death of livestock, such as during prolonged droughts. What unlocks the most important productivity constraint in one region may be improved genetics, in another improved feeds, and in another improved health. Development of tools to help determine what is most important where is the aim of a pilot research project Livestock and Fish is conducting with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Wageningen University and Research Centre.
  • Feed quality: ILRI is already involved in helping livestock value chains in Uganda and other countries to improve the quality of their commercial feeds, whose poor quality (and huge quality variations) is partly due to poor regulation of the feed industry and partly due to lack of capacity of feed compounders to develop nutritionally balanced feed rations. Needed is research on feed safety and hazards and the testing of feed training and certification schemes. Ideas for implementing feed certification programs in Tanzania and Ethiopia could be revived


A paradigm shift in crop improvement is happening: Crop aspects of livestock and fish production are getting due attention at last.

Proof-of-concept projects on feed and fodder value chains show that sustainable and environmentally friendly livestock and fish production is feasible.

More from this flagship

Filed under: Animal Feeding, CRP37, Feeds, Forages, Livestock-Fish, Research

Livestock and Fish breeding better farm animals and fish for developing countries


Composite of parts of two paintings: A Cow Like That Gives 5,000 Liters a Day, by Maria Primachenko, and Fish, by Aldemir Martins (both via WikiArt).

In late-March, the Livestock and Fish Research Program held a virtual review and planning meeting to take stock of progress since 2012, examine the wider science and development environment and devise plans and deliverables for the coming years. The discussions were organized around each of the five research and technology ‘flagships’ of the program, examining strengths, weaknesses and desired results.

The Animal Genetics Flagship works to ensure that by 2023 choices of improved and appropriate livestock and fish breeds and strains are widely available, used sustainably and are equitably providing nutritious, affordable food and income for the poor.

The flagship in a nutshell
Demand for healthier, higher performing and higher yielding animals through genetic improvement and the dissemination of those genetic gains to animal producers is increasing in the developing world, where rising populations and incomes are raising the need as well as demand for nutrient-dense milk, meat, fish and eggs.

In response, many small-scale livestock and fish producers, processors and service providers are working to become more commercially oriented. At the same time, global warming is causing many of them to have to cope with more variable and extreme climates and most face on-going reductions in their access to fresh water, productive lands, healthy agro-ecosystems and other natural resources.

What’s needed are animal stocks better tailored to their (changing, resource-scarce) environments and more profitable, efficient and sustainable smallholder animal production systems. Animal genetics, along with animal health and feeds, is one of three traditional pillars supporting such transformation.

Recent advances in molecular genetics and genomics enable scientists not only to characterize the genetic diversity and compositions of breeds and to develop higher yielding stock, but also, increasingly, to identify the genes controlling other important and complex animal traits such as resistance to disease and drought and resilience in the face of fodder scarcity and harsh environments. These scientific advances are particularly critical for programs aiming to improve developing-country livestock and fish, which as yet still greatly underperform compared to the improved breeds and strains of livestock and fish that are the mainstay of industrialized countries.

The Animal Genetics flagship is identifying and promoting improved breeds and strains as well as developing new ones. It is developing robust delivery systems that ensure that poor livestock and fish producers can access these genetic resources. The flagship employs both traditional and novel animal breeding approaches adapted to the low-input systems used by smallholder food producers. It makes use of the latest technologies in phenomics (measurements of the changing physical and biochemical traits of organisms in response to genetic mutation and environmental influences), genomics (molecular investigations of the structure, function, evolution and mapping of genomes) and reproductive biology (studies of the mechanisms regulating reproductive processes in livestock and fish).

In both its development and delivery work, this flagship also makes use of advanced information and communications technologies, tools and methodologies promoting gender equity, and programs strengthening capacities for livestock and fish research and development work.

Animal Genetics flagship snapshots

Click to view slideshow.

Virtual discussion

John Benzie, a fish geneticist at WorldFish and leader of the flagship, started the virtual discussion with a short overview of the work of his flagship. Click on the presentation below to listen to his audio-enhanced slide presentation.



The 40 comments fell into four major topics:
1) Who should decide on the breeds and breeding goals for a given farming system
2) The long time scales needed to develop genetically improved animals and fish
3) The importance of local building capacity to maintain animal breeding programs
4) The need to build an evidence base for continued investment in genetic improvements

  • Decision-making: Much discussion centred on the importance of developing clear breeding goals and who should determine these or be involved so as to ensure an appropriate fit to a given farming system and its environment. Opinions varied as to the extent to which a variety of value chain actors (e.g. processors, marketers, consumers), in addition to farmers, should have a say or be consulted as well as the proper extent to which women’s choices should be solicited and adhered to. Examples of farmer involvement in determining breeding goals, and of gender-responsive approaches, in the program’s present work were given. Some argued the need for integrating approaches to improved feed, health and breeds. The discussants agreed to summarize breeding goals for particular value chains for the second phase of the program.
  • Time scales: The long time needed to develop genetically improved breeds, and the need for unbroken investment over that time to achieve production goals, was highlighted. It was agreed that it is in the nature of animal breeding research that significant development impacts in this area are achieved only over the longer term. Indeed, it was emphasized that much of the current Livestock and Fish work involves improved strains developed with considerable investment by CGIAR starting long before the start of this program. However, the scientists agreed it will be important also to initiate new breeding activities for the various value chains Livestock and Fish works in, even though these will take a long time to bear fruit.
  • Capacity building: Participants discussed wide variations in the levels of capacity within Livestock and Fish’s targeted value chains to maintain the genetic improvement of their animal and fish stocks. Without such capacity, it was agreed, as well as the ability to disseminate genetic gains widely, farm communities would not be able to sustain the gains achieved, however sophisticated the genomic and ICT tools used to rapidly identify appropriate breeding traits. This challenge raised a related problem, that of uncontrolled, indiscriminate animal breeding, which is still common in smallholder farming communities and which can reduce, and eventually wipe out, any genetic gains made. Farmers and farm communities must therefore be encouraged to maintain good breeding practices through appropriate incentives.
  • Impact assessment: The discussants noted a dearth of information on the impacts of genetic improvements of animals and fish in developing countries and the importance of obtaining this information for Livestock and Fish. Such information is also needed, they said, to build an evidence base for continued investment in genetic improvement programs. Future impact surveys should be designed to elicit gender disaggregated information. And the ICT systems now being used to collect genetics data and farmer feedback should be modified to include gendered information.



Matching and delivering …

Benzie stressed the need for genetics, genomics and reproductive technologies. He argued that we need genetics to better match animal and fish stock with farming systems, genomics to improve breeding, and reproductive technologies to deliver our improved genetics. He said what’s needed are the cash and skills to maintain breeding programs and the networks able to get breeding materials to farmers. Other participants mentioned we also need the following:

  • to ensure farmer participation and leadership in local breeding programs
  • to look at an animal’s feed and health as well as its productivity
  • to get a good handle on second-generation problems such as the effects of indiscriminate crossbreeding
  • to train feed stockists in ration formulation and to implement schemes for certifying those involved in commercial feed formulations
  • to enlarge the role of nucleus herds and reproductive technologies to disseminate improved genetics
  • to have models of sustainable breeding programs for within-breed improvements, without which it’s difficult for other technologies, particularly genomics, to deliver

Progress so far …
Benzie also noted that in recent years researchers had produced a locally suitable GIFT strain of tilapia (O. niloticus) in Asia, an Abbassa strain in Egypt, an Akosombo strain in Ghana and a strain of indigenous fish (O. shiranus) in Malawi; they had assessed the genetic resources of the small mola fish in Bangladesh due to its importance for women and young children; and they had new work on carp in Bangladesh that should produce an improved fish by 2030 (‘a fairly quick turnaround’!).

Okeyo Mwai, a livestock geneticist at ILRI, added that scientists had genetically improved indigenous disease-resistant red Maasai rams and flocks in collaboration with local Maasai pastoral communities, and were combining genomic and ICT technologies, which is speeding development of more precise breeding objectives and delivering desired genetic gains faster. In Ethiopia, said Aynalem Haile of ICARDA, the emphasis has been more on expanding the use of community-based breeding programs.

What’s next …
‘I’m looking forward to seeing the extent to which the proposed breeding and delivery programs embrace various production systems along the gradient of intensification,’ said Amos Omore, a veterinary epidemiologist at ILRI and leader of the program’s value development team in Tanzania.

There has never been a better time for the science of animal genetics, with very recent (and very big) breakthroughs in the fields of genetics and genomics promising unprecedented refinements in breeding work. This group of CGIAR Livestock and Fish scientists is working to ensure that those breakthroughs benefit small-scale livestock producers and consumers throughout the developing world.

Participants in the virtual discussion

 Animal Genetics Flagship

Above: Participants in the Animal Genetics Flagship discussion. Left to right, and top to bottom:
Row 1: John Benzie, Michael Peters, Tom Randolph, Stuart Worsley, Malcolm Beveridge
Row 2: Karen Marshall, Barbara Wieland, Jens Peter Tang Dalsgaard, Mats Lannerstad, Patricia Rainey
Row 3: Barbara Rischkowsky, Amos Omore, Keith Child, Jane Poole, Max Rothschild
Row 4: Absolomon Kihara, Evelyn Katingi, Ulf Magnusson, Carlos Quiros, Catherine Pfeifer
Row 5: Isabelle Baltenweck, Alan Duncan, Dirk Jan de Koning, Rhiannon Pyburn, Ben Hack
Row 6: Henk van der Mheen, Okwyo Mwai, Lucy Lapar, Acho Okike, Emily Ouma
Row 7: Alessandra Galie, Michael Blümmel, Esther Ndung’u, Danilo Pezo, Shirley Tarawali


More from this flagship


Filed under: Animal Breeding, CRP37, Genetics, Indigenous breeds, Livestock-Fish, Research, WorldFish

Improved reproductive techniques enable effective use of superior rams in Ethiopia’s community-based sheep breeding programs

Farmer assessing the integrity of a ram’s external reproductive organs

Farmer assessing the integrity of a ram’s external reproductive organs. Photo: SARI/Zelalem Abate

Zelalem Abate

Genetic improvement of small ruminants has been identified as a “best bet” in Ethiopia’s highland areas. As part of the Livestock and Fish small ruminant value chain development activities in Ethiopias, community-based breeding programs established through an earlier project (located in Horro, Menz, Bonga and Abergelle) were strengthened and new ones were established in Atsbi and Doyogena.

Community-based breeding ensures farmer participation in selection and breeding processes, from inception through to implementation. Community-based goat and sheep breeding programs (CBBP) in Ethiopia have been promoted and implemented jointly by the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), and partners from the national agricultural research system.

The breeding objectives are to accomplish (i) accurate control of the timing of reproductive events; (ii) maximize the number of females giving birth; and (iii) ensure the survival of newborn kids, and their ability to grow and mature into productive animals. In the context of genetic improvement, reproduction should also be a successful vehicle to effectively disseminate improved genetics in the base population.

Currently, improved rams and bucks produced by the CBBP’s are shared to serve the ewes and does in the communities. There is compelling evidence that improved rams and bucks are bringing genetic progress where they are used. Features inherent to the production systems,in particular the small flock sizes, means that the reproductive impact of the improved sires is limited. To scale out the genetic progress made and expand the use of improved rams and bucks, the Ethiopia Small Ruminant value chain is explore additional options to deliver improved genetics to communities:

  • Assessing improved males for their breeding soundness. Ram and buck examination for mating ability is an important step towards improving fertility at the flock level. Improving the male’s reproductive performance is significant as each male may mate 20 to 40 females per year. This activity works eth farmers to help them understand the mating ability of their males and how to recognize a good male whn obtaining a new one. In 2014, NARS staff based in the different locations (Bonga, Menz and Horro) were trained and subsequently implemented breeding soundness examinations of 123 rams. Each of the breeding rams was examined for the integrity of its reproductive organs, apparent clinical signs, with an estimation of the age and the overall health condition.
  • Disseminating healthy improved males. This step is curently implemented through development of a disease management program for breeding rams which includes, among other measures targeted at vaccination against major diseases (FMD, PPR and Brucellosis). This would prevent rams and bucks spreading diseases. The team has engaged an MSc student from Addis Ababa University to work on this topic.
  • Development of efficient, affordable synchronization protocols. This is an important step towards improving the delivery system of improved rams either through natural mating or artificial insemination (AI). There is an increasing interest in synchronization protocols that avoid the use of synthetic progestogens, which are reputed to lead to ‘non clean oestrus’ and generate high levels of residues in the end products. Ethiopian sheep breeds, because of their non-seasonal character, may be highly responsive to protocols associating prostaglandins and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) coupled to timed nutritional inputs. The resulting oestrus is more natural and may promote higher conception rates and litter size. This step is in its discovery phase with an on-station protocol (led by Debre Birhan Sheep Research Centre) where promising protocols have been tested alongiside conventional protocols based on the use of intra-vaginal progestogen sponges and exogenous gonadotropins. Data and results being analysed should inform on novel oestrous synchronization protocols that would enhance community use of superior rams.
  • Response of Ethiopian sheep and goat breeds to artificial insemination. None of the laboratories in Ethiopia is equipped to undertake all the steps of small ruminant AI, resulting in a research void. AI research is an important component to support genetics and enhance the efficiency of CBBP’s. The ICARDA team is working with national researchers to develop the capacity of two AI laboratories (Debre Birhan and Bonga) to support genetic improvement schemes of Menz and Bonga sheep. First trials with fresh semen will be carried out in the second half of 2015.

Through advances in reproductive technology, a small number of top rams and bucks can be used to serve a large small ruminant population. In addition, each ram or buck is able to produce a larger number of offspring in a given time, thus enhancing the efficiency of progeny testing. The high intensity and accuracy of selection arising from these technologies can also lead to a fast rate of genetic improvement. Furthermore, producing and then disseminating healthy rams is a precondition for a longer-term certification process of the improved genetics generated from CBBP’s.

Read a related story

Story contributed by Mourad Rekik, small ruminant reproduction scientist, ICARDA



Filed under: CRP37, East Africa, Ethiopia, Genetics, Goats, ICARDA, Research, Sheep, Small Ruminants, Value Chains

Uganda pig feed trials shows benefits of local feed solutions

Pig feed trials - diet formulationPig feed trials _ animal weighing
Research assistants chopping jackfruit (left) and weighing a feed trial pig (right) at Kamuzinda Farm, Uganda (photo credit: ILRI/Natalie Carter).

Pig production in Uganda is on the rise. The number of pigs in the country stood at 3.2 million in 2011 (based on a livestock census) from about 200,000 thirty years ago. A rise in the country’s population and incomes has triggered an upsurge in pork consumption. The per capita pork consumption of Uganda was 3.4 kg per person per annum in 2011, the highest in the East Africa region. Most of the pork consumed in the country is supplied by smallholder producers in over 1 million households, with women playing a central role in pig farming.

These figures, however, disguise challenges in the sector including diseases and parasites, unreliable markets, inadequate extension services and most importantly, poor quality and unavailability of pig feeds.

A 2013 value chain assessment conducted by the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) showed that irrespective of the pig system practiced, feed accounts for 60-80% of the total cost of production. Farmers frequently use crop residues, green fodder and kitchen leftovers to reduce feeding costs and in many cases supplement these with commercial or home-mixed concentrates.

Worse still, many pig farmers operate independently and are not organized into collective associations which lowers their bargaining power when purchasing feeds and when selling live animals. Additionally, the currently unregulated feed processing sector has given rise to a number of unscrupulous feed traders who produce substandard feed and use either extraneous bulking material (such as sawdust) or sell infested feed at prohibitive prices.

As part of a research intervention aimed to alleviate the feed crunch for smallholder pig producers, the University of Guelph’s Department of Population Medicine, in partnership with ILRI, started a feed trial in Kamuzinda Farm in Uganda’s Masaka District.

Led by Natalie Carter, a PhD candidate and an ILRI/University Guelph joint appointee, the six-month study tested novel pig diets using locally available crop residues and feedstuffs to determine the difference (if any) in the average daily gain (ADG) in weight of pigs fed on a silage-based ration, or a ration using local feedstuffs and if these differ from ADG of pigs fed commercial feed. Furthermore, the pilot sought to:

  • determine if feed efficiency differs by diet type
  • determine if ADG differs by breed
  • determine if ADG differs by sex
  • determine the volume of water consumed per day by local and crossbreed pigs

Pig feed trials, Kamuzinda
Natalie Carter with Joseph Serwadda and a pig trader (photo credit: ILRI).

Feed formulation
Uganda has two main rain seasons (March to June) and (September to December) during which food crops are grown and fodder for livestock is more readily available. For the rest of the year, farmers’ reliance on locally available fodder and crop residue for their pigs leaves them vulnerable.

To cater for the seasonal variation, Carter and the project team formulated two diets, a diet based on locally available resources and a silage-based diet. The local diet was based on fresh locally available ingredients (forages, fruit) and purchased feeds (fish, cottonseed, maize bran) developed with nutrient requirements suitable for crossbred pigs (implying that the local breeds would be fed higher nutrient levels than they require). These ingredients are readily available during the rainy/wet seasons.

The second diet was based on ensiled sweet potato vines and tubers (ratio 70% vines to 30% tubers to reflect work done in Kenya by ILRI’s Ben Lukuyu with nutrient requirements suitable for crossbred pigs. The vines and tubers were purchased from the local growers in Masaka and Luwero districts.

The two feed diets were then tested on 90 pigs, half of which were the local pig breed and the other half, crossbreed pigs.

Preliminary results revealed that though pigs fed on commercial feeds (off-the shelf, pre-packaged feed) performed better, there was considerable weight gain among the pigs fed on the locally formulated diets (local and silage diets). The feed trial further confirmed that low-cost balanced diets can be developed to meet the nutrient requirements of pigs on smallholder farms. The findings will help many Ugandan smallholder farmers who struggle with finding the right quantity and quality of feed for their pigs.

More information:

Filed under: Animal Feeding, CGIAR, CRP37, East Africa, Feeds, Intensification, Pigs, Uganda, Value Chains

A review of environmental impact assessment frameworks for livestock production systems

This study, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, reviews the currently available tools for and approaches to assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production systems.

The demand for food from animal sources is expected to double by 2050, driven by population growth, urbanization and rising incomes. Demand in developing countries will account for the major part of the increase in both production and consumption of animal products.

As a result, competition for land and water is likely to be fierce, with potentially profound outcomes for both the environment and food security. Furthermore, it will be imperative to limit agricultural expansion into vulnerable ecosystems to avoid irreversible changes in the resilience of agroecosystems. Thus, a large part of the demand must be met by the “sustainable intensification” of agriculture.

There are many frameworks and methods for evaluating the environmental sustainability of farm systems. However, few of these initiatives are concerned solely with livestock systems, and these tend to focus on one or two areas rather than address all potential livestock-related environmental impacts.

Hence, to fully capture these impacts, a multidimensional framework is needed to underpin environmental impact assessments of livestock production, and of livestock value chains.

The authors aim to identify the key parameters included in sustainability or impact assessment methods, and whether these parameters differ between different sectors and objectives. The study concludes with recommendations on what features are necessary for developing a successful and comprehensive environmental assessment framework for livestock production.

Download the report

Filed under: Cattle, CRP37, Dairying, East Africa, Environment, ILRI, Livestock, LSE, Research, Systems Analysis, Tanzania, Targeting

Stakeholders meet to develop Forages for Africa program

Participants of the Forages for Africa meeting

On 26-29 Jan 2015, a “Forages for Africa” meeting was held at the Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) at Aberystwyth University in the UK. The meeting, organised by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and IBERS brought together partners around the Forages for Africa initiative. Participants included researchers from Colombia, the UK, and Central and East African countries, and key sponsors and donors.

The Forages for Africa program responds to the increasing demand for meat and dairy produce in East Africa by enhancing livestock productivity. It aims to introduce well-adapted tropical forages into crop-livestock farming systems and thereby enhance the quality, volume and availability of livestock feeds. It will ensure that the introduction of new farming methods is culturally sensitive and adaptable, particularly in respect to the role of women in small-holder farming.

The long-term impacts of these activities include:

  • increasing smallholder farm incomes by offering farmers enhanced productivity and competitive products at market
  • improving environmental health through both animal and human consumption of enhanced products
  • regeneration of degraded land by means of progressive and sensitive introduction of forage species

The development of the Forages for Africa program has been well-received in principle by a range of national and international organisations but until now, no formal request for funding has been made.

Feeds and forages are important and have a direct impact in the entire livestock production system. They can increase the quality and quantity of meat and dairy produce and affect the amount of methane emitted from ruminants. The Livestock and Fish CGIAR Research Program feeds and forages flagship aims to address the various animal feed and forages challenges in specific target countries.

From the Livestock and Fish Program, Tom Randolph, program director, Amos Omore, value chain coordinator for Tanzania, Michael Peters, CIAT representative for the Livestock and Fish program whose mandate is on forage research and An Notenbaert, Systems Analysis for Sustainable Innovations Flagship leader as well as one of the workshop organizers, participated at the event. ILRI’s Jean Hanson and Sita Ghimire (ILRI-BecA) also participated at the event.

Filed under: Africa, Animal Feeding, CIAT, CRP37, Feeds, ILRI

Linking farmers to value chains in Uganda

Originally written by Jo Cadilhon in the Humidtropics blog:

Mukono pig farmer Regina Nasamba and her children

Last week (3-6 March 2015) the Humidtropics, Dryland Systems and Aquatic Agricultural Systems CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) met in Ibadan, Nigeria for the International Conference on Integrated Systems Research. The purpose of these three ‘systems’ CRPs is to identify and make the most of the complex intertwined nature of the agricultural production, marketing, and natural resources management systems to contribute to reducing poverty, improving incomes, nutrition and the status of women and other marginalized groups in humid tropical, drylands and aquatic ecosystems.

The preliminary results from my own systems research in the humid tropics of Uganda came out too late to be submitted to the conference but they also demonstrate the integrated nature of the agrifood system. Together with my agricultural economist colleague Emily Ouma from the Uganda office of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and local partners from Shoreline Services Limited, we have been undertaking research into the factors influencing the successful inclusion of small farmers in modern value chains around the Lake Victoria Basin area in Uganda. This research is being funded by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) as part of a research grant on inclusive value chains.

Taking a marketing perspective to the problem, we surveyed a total of 300 farmers in the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda producing either cooking banana (the staple food for that part of the country), pigs (Ugandans are the biggest consumers of pork meat in all Sub-saharan Africa as measured by quantity eaten per person per year) or aquaculture fish (a growing enterprise for smallholder farmers with appropriate land and water resources).

The farmers’ sample was divided equally into farmers who are producing for an identified customer on the one hand and farmers who try to sell their produce whenever they need to and to whomever they find willing to purchase it on the other hand. Our preliminary findings identify the factors that have an impact on whether farmers are linked to an identified value chain or not.

Read the full article

Filed under: CGIAR, CRP12, CRP37, East Africa, Livestock-Fish, Pigs, Systems Analysis, Uganda, Value Chains

Livestock and Fish Program 2015 review and planning meeting goes virtual

This week, the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish is holding a virtual review and planning workshop. Initially conceived as a single conference, this has been rendered into an online format that will operate across time zones.

Part 1 happens this week deals with a review of the Livestock and Fish program work, of the context within which it operates, of opinions relating to key design features, and recommendations for research questions, approaches, model changes and theories of change.

Part 2 will happen later, and will deal with the first stage generation of ideas for Phase 2 of the program, and specific planning for the completion of the proposal preparation and submission.

Tom Randolph introduces the meeting:


Filed under: CRP37

Influencing policy on the pig sector and broader livestock sector policies in Vietnam

The International Livestock Research Institute’s projects in Vietnam are contributing to influencing policy on the pig sector and broader livestock sector policies in Vietnam in a number of ways. Below are some examples:

  1. Recommendations contributed to the draft ntional strategy on animal breeding development (PM’s Decree 10/2008 QD-TTg)

In the first draft of the strategy, the Department of Livestock Production (DLP) paid most attention to large scale farms and considered that as the only solution to develop the livestock sector with higher productivity and better disease control. The Center for Agricultural Policy/Institute for Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development (CAP/IPSARD) together with ILRI, in the project Improving the Competitiveness of Pig Producers in an Adjusting Vietnam Market, developed a Vietnam pig sector modeling (VPM) showing that smallholder pig producers still play important roles in domestic supply of pigs in the next 10 years. Based on evidence generated by the project, such as income elasticity and market share, as well as the consumer demand and preference of products from the traditional and small-scale pig production, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development leaders paid greater attention on smallholder pig producers. The latest Decision 50/2014/QD-TTg issued by the Prime Minister on 4 September 2014 expressed government support to strengthen the efficiency of smallholder pig producers during 2015-2020.

  1. Contributions to the annual ‘Agricultural Outlook’ conference organized by CAP/IPSARD

Various ILRI products have been used in the annual Agricultural Outlook Conference, organized by CAP/IPSARD since 2007. The Outlook Conference gathers policy makers, researchers, international donors and representatives of agribusiness, farmers and local authorities. In the Outlook Conference, CAP/IPSARD and ILRI provided research results on the forecast of per capita demand of pork, income elasticity and consumer preference, especially in case of animal disease and their policy implications to improve efficiency and quality of the pig value chain in Vietnam.

  1. Improving the Competitiveness of Pig Producers in an Adjusting Vietnam Market policy brief

The policy brief provided policy guidance based on empirical evidence on the key strengths and weaknesses of Vietnam pig production, with details on two main types of production systems i.e. modern and traditional. Policy recommendations from the project results focused on three key aspects: efficient and bio-secured production system, “cluster” model for distribution and marketing system, and upgrading value chain to improve market accessibility of smallholder pig producers in Vietnam.

  1. Restructuring plan of the livestock sector toward 2030 (Decision No 984/QD-BNN-CN)

The CAP/IPSARD’s team contributed to the preparation of the restructuring plan of Vietnam’s livestock sector. Key findings of the updated Vietnam pig sector modeling (VPM) contributed significantly in the proposed policy in the plan, specifically the main finding on smallholder pig producers still being an important supply source in the pig sector and would receive policies (such as in food safety and pork quality issues) the policies to reduce animal feed price (e.g. increase planned area of maize, prompt to spread GMO maize species) would also help to improve efficiency of pig production of both large and small farms. Supporting policy to create the technological changes in the traditional and small-scale pig sector will also help to reduce prices, maintain market shares, and have pro-poor impacts.

Contributed by Nguyen Do Anh Tuan, vice director of IPSARD (IPSARD has partnered with ILRI on various projects).

Filed under: CRP37, ILRI, Pigs, Southeast Asia, Value Chains, Vietnam

Linking small dairy producers to dynamic markets: Three business models from Kenya

In November last year, the Livestock and Fish CGIAR Research Program commissioned an external evaluation of its value chain approach. One of the evaluators’ main concerns was that Livestock and Fish researchers had spent their time analysing how the livestock and fish value chains were working from an economics perspective but little work had been done on characterizing successful business models for farmer’s group organization and value chain governance, which are more likely to lead to more meat, milk and fish by and for the poor.

Livestock and Fish has started taking this business development angle with research on existing dairy hubs in the Tanzania value chains. This post aims to keep the ball rolling on this topic of business models for linking smallholder livestock farmers to dynamic markets by an overview of three dairy marketing business models that I visited last year in Kenya.

There was a flurry of dairy knowledge sharing events in Kenya late last year. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA) organized the African Dairy Value Chain Seminar from 21 to 23 September. This was followed by the Annual dairy conference of the East and Southern Africa Dairy Association (ESADA) from 24 to 26 September. And from 27 to 29 October, more dairy experiences were shared at the 6th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture.

All three events also involved field trips to meet stakeholders in the Kenyan dairy value chains. So in the course of one month, I was able to hear about three different dairy business models linking smallholder dairy farmers to dynamic markets. I felt all three were successful to foster market access. This blog post summarizes the lessons I have learned from these three quick field visits in terms of 1) models for smallholder inclusion into value chains, 2) encouraging investment into dairy value chains, and 3) gender roles and empowerment in African dairy value chains.

Lower Eastern Dairy Association

Youth milking on a dairy farm in Machakos, Kenya

Youth milking on a dairy farm in Machakos, Kenya (photo credit: ILRI/Brad Collis)

This is an alliance of 18 dairy cooperatives and farmers’ associations covering the three Southeastern Kenyan counties of Machakos, Kitui and Makueni. The alliance was initiated in 2013 and represents around 2500 individual dairy farmers in Machakos and Makueni counties. They wanted to develop a network of milk collection and processing centres closer to their farms and a market outlet which they could control, rather than relying only on the collection networks of the large dairies to distribute the 10000 litres of milk they currently produce every day. The County Government of Machakos is supporting this initiative and helping the farmers to organize themselves, get trained on technical and managerial skills, and facilitating a multi-stakeholder dairy innovation platform to connect them with input suppliers and other interested parties of the dairy value chains. By recruiting more producers in the three counties, the Association has the potential to supply 40000 litres of milk per day, thus becoming an important institutional player in the region’s dairy market.

Eldoville Dairies Ltd

African Dairy Value Chain Seminar field visit

Lucy Karuga (left) the proprietor of Eldoville farm (photo credit: ILRI/Dorine Odongo)

Founded in 1985 in the Karen District of Nairobi by Mrs Lucy Karuga to add value to the milk produced on the family farm, Eldoville Dairies Ltd has now focused its business on the processing of milk. It transforms up to 5000 litres of milk per day into high-value individual-portion size butter, cheese and yoghurts for international-standard hotels and airline catering service providers. The fresh milk is sourced from 1000 smallholder dairy farmers rearing three to four Friesian or Ayrshire cows per farm, mainly located in Nyandarua, 160 km from Nairobi. At the time of the field visit, the farmers deliver the milk to the Ol Joro Orok collection centre where it is chilled before being transported to the Karen processing plant. Because the focus of the company is on processed products, it takes great care to make sure its suppliers deliver milk with above-average protein and fat content.

Ol Kalou Dairy Public Limited Company

 Ol Kalou Dairy Plant

The main building at the Ol Kalou Dairy Plant (photo credit: ILRI/Paul Karaimu)

After an initial investment in 2005 by Heifer International, this dairy collection enterprise located in Nyandarua District has been funded by the investments of private shareholders. The Ol Kalou dairy currently operates two collection centres (capacities 27000 and 35000L/day) and chills the milk of 6000 suppliers, mosty smallholders. The dairy also provides technical support and services to its farmer-suppliers to maintain milk quality. Its main customer is the large-scale Daima dairy located 150 km away in Nairobi. Milk prices paid to suppliers vary with market rate but are on average 38 Kenyan shillings per litre. Farmers pay milk transporters KES 3/L for the transport service to the dairy.

Lessons learned linking Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers to dynamic markets

  Lower Eastern Dairy Association Eldoville Dairies Ltd Ol Kalou Dairy PLC Smallholder inclusion Members of the Association are 18 primary dairy cooperatives and farmers’ associations, thus including smallholder dairy farmers who are the majority of the 2 500 individual cooperative members. Supplies milk from a network of 1 000 carefully selected farmers who raise their dairy cows on pastures, thus increasing the fat and protein content of the milk.Pays premium price of KES 43/L of milk.Provides training on feed and farm management to maintain suppliers’ milk quality. Majority of 6 000 suppliers are smallholder farmers.Provides technical support and training to suppliers to help maintain milk quality.The company is investing into more collection centres so as to source milk from more smallholders. Encouraging investment The Association’s business plan has attracted funding from the Machakos County Government who has bought a pasteurizer for the Association and is encouraging farmers to invest collectively with the help of private banks to materialize their business plan. Continued demand in the niche market of high-value processed milk products for hotels and catering services has led Eldoville Dairies Ltd to invest in a processing factory located in the dairy production area 160 km away from Nairobi and due to start operating in 2015. Some shareholders of the company are suppliers but there are also non-farming investors who come from the local community around Ol Kalou. Although the latter now live in Nairobi or even abroad, they have invested in the dairy to help develop their local community.The customer Daima Dairy has helped the Ol Kalou dairy invest in refrigeration tanks. Gender roles and empowerment 1/3 of the seats on the Association’s executive committee are reserved for women. The company’s general manager is a woman who pays specific attention to the gender balance in her workforce. At the start of the venture, men were the official suppliers of the dairy although women were tending to the cows on the farms.Now half of suppliers are women, four board members out of 13 are women and many women in the community are self-employed as milk collectors. Contact for further information Mr Joshua Wambua, Manager, Lower Eastern Dairy Cooperative Association jshwambua [a] Mrs Lucy Karuga, Founder and General Manager, Eldoville Dairies Ltd lucy [a] Mr John Kamau, Extension Manager, Ol Kalou Dairy kimkamaa [a]

I constructed this table from the information gathered from very rapid field visits. Further research is needed to gather more evidence of the performance of these three models.

Which model is best adapted to which configuration of farmers’ groups, distance to market, agro-ecological zone? Which model would be the strongest in the face of possible fluctuations in fodder availability and market prices? Which model is easier to set up and operate for the smallholders and their value chain partners? How can women and other marginalized groups be given a more prominent role in decision making in these models?

This is the type of research that scientists involved in the Livestock and Fish dairy value chains of India and Tanzania could be implementing to address the recommendation from the external evaluation on its value chain approach. Collaboration on this with researchers working in the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets is likely to be fruitful to help groups of dairy farmers and their value chain partners choose the most appropriate business model for their operations.

Jo Cadilhon, Senior Agricultural Economist, Policy, Trade and Value Chains Program, ILRI

Filed under: Africa, CRP2, CRP37, Dairying, East Africa, Innovation Systems, Kenya, Markets, Opinion Piece, PTVC, Value Chains, Women