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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in pigs, pork and raw pork handlers in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda

Safe food, fair food outputs -

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in pigs, pork and raw pork handlers in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda Musewa, A.; Roesel, K.; Nakanjako, D.; Grace, D.; Ssenyonga, R.; Nangendo, J.; Kawooya, I.; Erume, J. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a zoonotic ubiquitous gram-positive bacterium, which causes erysipelas in swine, mammals, birds and erysipeloid in humans. People in contact with animals, animal products or animal wastes are at greatest risk. From June 2013 to December 2015, a multidisciplinary risk assessment was conducted to identify the risks associated with E. rhusiopathaie along the pig value chain in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda. Quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Serum from 460 pigs and 100 fresh pork samples and human EDTA blood was gathered from 302 raw pork handlers (butchers, abattoir workers and housewives), for microbiology cultures and serology. Six focus group discussions were conducted with 26 butchers/abattoir workers and with 26 housewives. Three key informant interviews were conducted with a health assistant, veterinary officer and a nursing officer. Overall, 308/460 (67%) of the pig sera carried antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae. Forty-five percent (45/100, 45%) of the fresh pork samples were contaminated with E. rhusiopathiae and 30/302 (9.9%) of the raw pork handlers were positive for infection with E. rhusiopathiae. The mean age of the raw pork handlers was 38 years, 21/30 (70%) of men were infected compared to 9/30(30%) of the women. The main risk factor for the infection was the type of raw pork handler. Of the abattoir workers 14/38 (47%) were positive, 9/59 (30%) of the butchers and 7/205 (23.3%) of the housewives were infected with E.rhusiopathiae. This is the first ever report of E. rhusiopathiae in pigs and humans in Uganda and East Africa. Previously, the acute form of swine erysipelas may have been confused for other diseases in pigs reported in Uganda which are characterized acute symptoms such as sudden death (for example, African swine fever). We recommend increasing awareness of the disease among animal and human practitioners as treatment is easy and available and vaccination is possible. However, the disease is still unknown to local veterinarians, clinical doctors, meat inspectors, butchers and laboratory personnel. Proper hygiene, regular pork inspection, use of protective wear among people working/ in contact with animals should be promoted. The study was conducted under the Safe Food, Fair Food project led by the International Livestock Research Institute and carried out with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led by the International Food Policy Research Institute.

The occurrence of porcine Toxoplasma gondii infections in smallholder production systems in Uganda

Safe food, fair food outputs -

The occurrence of porcine Toxoplasma gondii infections in smallholder production systems in Uganda Roesel, K.; Schares, G.; Grace, D.; Baumann, M.P.O.; Fries, R.; Dione, M.; Clausen, P.-H. Pig production is an emerging agribusiness in Eastern Africa but baseline information on pig diseases including zoonoses is still scarce. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not usually present with clinical signs in pigs, yet it is considered an important source of human infection when pork containing tissue cysts is poorly handled or consumed raw or undercooked. In a cross-sectional survey between April and July 2013, we sampled 932 pigs between three months to three years of age in 22 villages at smallholder farms. The sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. gondii using a commercial ELISA (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine) and an in-house assay (TgSAG1 p30). The overall seroprevalence based on the commercial ELISA was 28.7% (95% CI: 25.8-31.7%). Seropositive animals were found in all villages with significant differences across the three districts (P<0.05) and 12 sub-counties (P<0.01) in the survey area. Cohen’s kappa statistic showed a very good level of agreement (κ=0.7637) between the two serological assays. Preliminary univariate analysis suggests a significant association between seropositivity and pig age, value chain type, feeding of crop residues, source of drinking water, keeping cats on farm compound, and frequent sightings of wildlife (especially antelopes, hares, wild and stray dogs) near the village. The present report is the first survey documenting the seroprevalence of T. gondii in domestic pigs in the East African Community (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) and investigating potential risk factors that may need attention when promoting smallholder pig keeping as a livelihood activity in Central and Eastern Uganda. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led by the International Food Policy Research Institute, through the Safe Food, Fair Food project at ILRI as well as the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock & Fish at ILRI as part of the Smallholder Pig Value Chain Development Project.

Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in pork and vegetable servings at pork joints in Kampala, Uganda

Safe food, fair food outputs -

Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in pork and vegetable servings at pork joints in Kampala, Uganda Ndoboli, D.; Heilmann, M.; Roesel, K.; Clausen, P.-H.; Wampande, E.; Grace, D.; Alter, T.; Huehn, S. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars including the presence of shared plasmids in pork and related fresh vegetables served in pork joints in Kampala, Uganda. Pork butcheries in three of the five administrative divisions of Kampala were included for the survey. Samples included raw pork, roasted pork, water, onions, tomatoes, cabbage, butcher’s hands (swabs), utensils (swabs) and fly midgut extracts. A total of 693 samples were collected from 77 pork butcheries from June- October 2014. Overall 53.2% pork joints had samples positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. Isolation rates ranged from 31.2% (24/77) for raw pork, 1.3% (1/77) for roasted pork, 7.8% (6/77) for tomatoes, 2.6% (2/77) for onions, 5.2% (4/77) for cabbage, 9.1% (7/77) in water, and 22.1% (17/77) from fly midguts. Swab samples taken from utensil and butcher’s hands swabs were found negative (Heilmann et al., 2015). In the isolates obtained, resistance towards 22 antibiotics was tested. Resistances were found towards 11 out of the 22 antibiotics tested. High resistances were found to Cephazolin (97%), Cefotixime (93%), Gentamicin (88%), and Ceftazidime (86%). Intermediate resistance was found to Ciprofloxacin (59%) and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (57.6%). Most isolates (85%) were susceptible to Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim. Identification of plasmids by PCR-based replicon typing was performed recognizing FIA,FIB,FIC,HI1,HI2,I1- 1ᵞ,L/M,N,P,W,T,A/C,K,B/O,X,Y,F and FIIA. Six incompatibility groups were identified: FIA, W, FIC, FIB, P, Y with more than one incompatibility group existing among different isolates. A high resistance rate among Salmonella strains was found while the total number of incompatibility groups detected was with approximation 2.4. Thus, even though the total number of plasmids per strain is low, resistance rates detected remain high. The high resistance rates are probably resulting from intensified food animal production driving a greater use of antibiotics, which is a crucial aspect of public health concern.

Food safety assessment and challenges along small-scale pig systems in Vietnam

Our latest outputs -

Food safety assessment and challenges along small-scale pig systems in Vietnam Unger, F.; Hung Nguyen-Viet; Sinh Dang Xuan; Phuc Pham-Duc; Pham Van Hung; Lapar, L.; Marshall, K.; Duong Van Nhiem; Makita, K.; Grace, D. Food borne diseases (FBD) are an increasing global public health concern with estimated 1 in 10 people falling ill every year from eating contaminated food causing 420,000 deaths. Diarrheal diseases accounted for more than half of the global burden with children at especial risk (WHO 2015). Evidence on FBD in low and middle income countries, including Vietnam, is still limited but the risk is considered to be higher than in high income countries due to poor hygiene, inadequate food production and storage, risky consumption habits, and weak legislation and enforcement. For Vietnam, pork is an important component of the diet and accounts for more than 70% of meat consumed: most (84%) is supplied by small and medium scale farmers. Recent ILRI studies have demonstrated strong preferences of Vietnamese consumers for fresh, un-chilled pork sold at conventional wet markets but also increasing concerns over food safety have been expressed by urban consumers. Existing food safety studies along the pig sector have focused on assessment of hazards (mainly Salmonella) at a specific actor of the pork chain while farm to fork approaches or studies measuring the impact of hazards to human are limited. Since 2012 ILRI has implemented specific studies assessing food safety issues including zoonoses along pig value chains in selected regions of Vietnam. This included risk assessments of food safety hazards in pork such as Salmonella along a more peri-urban value chain with mainly exotic pigs or their crosses (Hung Yen province). In addition, we assessed the presence of two major zoonoses (trichinellosis and cysticercosis) in a rural indigenous pig value chain in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Results for Hung Yen show a high presence of biological hazards (e.g. 43% pork cuts at market are Salmonella contaminated). Key challenges include poor slaughter and meat handling hygiene (eg. floor slaughter) aligned with low awareness on related health risks among interviewed actors. Another challenge is to identify feasible incentives to motivate change of behavior and practice of actors. For the native pig system (Central Highlands) sporadic infections with trichinellosis and cysticercosis were found. Key challenges include here predominant risky farm management practices (free roaming of pigs) but also very low awareness and knowledge on zoonoses of native pig producers who are often members of poor ethnic minorities.

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in pigs, pork and raw pork handlers in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda

Our latest outputs -

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in pigs, pork and raw pork handlers in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda Musewa, A.; Roesel, K.; Nakanjako, D.; Grace, D.; Ssenyonga, R.; Nangendo, J.; Kawooya, I.; Erume, J. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a zoonotic ubiquitous gram-positive bacterium, which causes erysipelas in swine, mammals, birds and erysipeloid in humans. People in contact with animals, animal products or animal wastes are at greatest risk. From June 2013 to December 2015, a multidisciplinary risk assessment was conducted to identify the risks associated with E. rhusiopathaie along the pig value chain in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda. Quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Serum from 460 pigs and 100 fresh pork samples and human EDTA blood was gathered from 302 raw pork handlers (butchers, abattoir workers and housewives), for microbiology cultures and serology. Six focus group discussions were conducted with 26 butchers/abattoir workers and with 26 housewives. Three key informant interviews were conducted with a health assistant, veterinary officer and a nursing officer. Overall, 308/460 (67%) of the pig sera carried antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae. Forty-five percent (45/100, 45%) of the fresh pork samples were contaminated with E. rhusiopathiae and 30/302 (9.9%) of the raw pork handlers were positive for infection with E. rhusiopathiae. The mean age of the raw pork handlers was 38 years, 21/30 (70%) of men were infected compared to 9/30(30%) of the women. The main risk factor for the infection was the type of raw pork handler. Of the abattoir workers 14/38 (47%) were positive, 9/59 (30%) of the butchers and 7/205 (23.3%) of the housewives were infected with E.rhusiopathiae. This is the first ever report of E. rhusiopathiae in pigs and humans in Uganda and East Africa. Previously, the acute form of swine erysipelas may have been confused for other diseases in pigs reported in Uganda which are characterized acute symptoms such as sudden death (for example, African swine fever). We recommend increasing awareness of the disease among animal and human practitioners as treatment is easy and available and vaccination is possible. However, the disease is still unknown to local veterinarians, clinical doctors, meat inspectors, butchers and laboratory personnel. Proper hygiene, regular pork inspection, use of protective wear among people working/ in contact with animals should be promoted. The study was conducted under the Safe Food, Fair Food project led by the International Livestock Research Institute and carried out with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led by the International Food Policy Research Institute.

The occurrence of porcine Toxoplasma gondii infections in smallholder production systems in Uganda

Our latest outputs -

The occurrence of porcine Toxoplasma gondii infections in smallholder production systems in Uganda Roesel, K.; Schares, G.; Grace, D.; Baumann, M.P.O.; Fries, R.; Dione, M.; Clausen, P.-H. Pig production is an emerging agribusiness in Eastern Africa but baseline information on pig diseases including zoonoses is still scarce. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not usually present with clinical signs in pigs, yet it is considered an important source of human infection when pork containing tissue cysts is poorly handled or consumed raw or undercooked. In a cross-sectional survey between April and July 2013, we sampled 932 pigs between three months to three years of age in 22 villages at smallholder farms. The sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to T. gondii using a commercial ELISA (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine) and an in-house assay (TgSAG1 p30). The overall seroprevalence based on the commercial ELISA was 28.7% (95% CI: 25.8-31.7%). Seropositive animals were found in all villages with significant differences across the three districts (P<0.05) and 12 sub-counties (P<0.01) in the survey area. Cohen’s kappa statistic showed a very good level of agreement (κ=0.7637) between the two serological assays. Preliminary univariate analysis suggests a significant association between seropositivity and pig age, value chain type, feeding of crop residues, source of drinking water, keeping cats on farm compound, and frequent sightings of wildlife (especially antelopes, hares, wild and stray dogs) near the village. The present report is the first survey documenting the seroprevalence of T. gondii in domestic pigs in the East African Community (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda) and investigating potential risk factors that may need attention when promoting smallholder pig keeping as a livelihood activity in Central and Eastern Uganda. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led by the International Food Policy Research Institute, through the Safe Food, Fair Food project at ILRI as well as the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock & Fish at ILRI as part of the Smallholder Pig Value Chain Development Project.

Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in pork and vegetable servings at pork joints in Kampala, Uganda

Our latest outputs -

Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in pork and vegetable servings at pork joints in Kampala, Uganda Ndoboli, D.; Heilmann, M.; Roesel, K.; Clausen, P.-H.; Wampande, E.; Grace, D.; Alter, T.; Huehn, S. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars including the presence of shared plasmids in pork and related fresh vegetables served in pork joints in Kampala, Uganda. Pork butcheries in three of the five administrative divisions of Kampala were included for the survey. Samples included raw pork, roasted pork, water, onions, tomatoes, cabbage, butcher’s hands (swabs), utensils (swabs) and fly midgut extracts. A total of 693 samples were collected from 77 pork butcheries from June- October 2014. Overall 53.2% pork joints had samples positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. Isolation rates ranged from 31.2% (24/77) for raw pork, 1.3% (1/77) for roasted pork, 7.8% (6/77) for tomatoes, 2.6% (2/77) for onions, 5.2% (4/77) for cabbage, 9.1% (7/77) in water, and 22.1% (17/77) from fly midguts. Swab samples taken from utensil and butcher’s hands swabs were found negative (Heilmann et al., 2015). In the isolates obtained, resistance towards 22 antibiotics was tested. Resistances were found towards 11 out of the 22 antibiotics tested. High resistances were found to Cephazolin (97%), Cefotixime (93%), Gentamicin (88%), and Ceftazidime (86%). Intermediate resistance was found to Ciprofloxacin (59%) and Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (57.6%). Most isolates (85%) were susceptible to Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim. Identification of plasmids by PCR-based replicon typing was performed recognizing FIA,FIB,FIC,HI1,HI2,I1- 1ᵞ,L/M,N,P,W,T,A/C,K,B/O,X,Y,F and FIIA. Six incompatibility groups were identified: FIA, W, FIC, FIB, P, Y with more than one incompatibility group existing among different isolates. A high resistance rate among Salmonella strains was found while the total number of incompatibility groups detected was with approximation 2.4. Thus, even though the total number of plasmids per strain is low, resistance rates detected remain high. The high resistance rates are probably resulting from intensified food animal production driving a greater use of antibiotics, which is a crucial aspect of public health concern.

Isolation and identification of Listeria species along the milk value chain in one region of Tanzania

Safe food, fair food outputs -

Isolation and identification of Listeria species along the milk value chain in one region of Tanzania Hyera, E.; Msalya, G.; Karimuribo, E.D.; Kurwijila, L.R.; Alonso, S.; Roesel, K.; Grace, D. Milk is an important source of nutrients in the diet. However, due to its nutritional nature it also serves as an ideal medium for growth and development of various microorganisms under suitable conditions. It is a staple food, which is linked to zoonotic pathogens. This study was carried out in two districts (one region namely Tanga) of Tanzania to evaluate the awareness of farmers on milk contamination and to estimate microbial load along the milk value chain. In total 114 respondents were visited to conducted interviews on awareness as well as strategies for solving the problem of milk contamination. Subsequently milk samples were aseptically collected from each of the 114 respondents for laboratory analyses using the standard ISO procedures for food microbial analyses in particular the horizontal methods. We have showed that there are poor hygienic practices by the majority of actors along the milk value chain in Tanga region. Concerning microbial level, our results revealed that above 90 percent of all samples collected showed total plate count (TPC) above standard acceptable in the Eastern Africa countries (EAC) of 2.0x105 CFU/ml. It was also shown that there was more contamination in milk samples obtained from the household farms compared to those which were collected from the milk suppliers and in the extensive farming system than in the intensive system (P < 0.05). Moreover, three Listeria species namely L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes were identified. L. monocytogenes were isolated and identified as the common contaminants in milk along the value chain in the study region.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices among customers at pork butcheries in Kampala, Uganda

Safe food, fair food outputs -

Knowledge, attitudes and practices among customers at pork butcheries in Kampala, Uganda Heilmann, M.; Roesel, K.; Clausen, P.-H.; Grace, D. Of all East African countries, Uganda boasts the highest pork consumption at 3.4 kg per capita per year (2011). Yet, there is little documentation how pork is produced, marketed and consumed, or on the implications this may have on public health. Up to 70% of produced pork is estimated to be consumed in urban/periurban areas mainly through informal butcheries and so-called pork joints, which are a combination of road-side butchery selling raw pork and a bistro for cooked pork often served with alcoholic drinks. This study was aimed at gaining better insight into this increasing pork business at the consumer level. Between June and July 2014, a baseline survey was conducted with 240 customers in 60 randomly selected pork butcheries in Kampala to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data was collected during face-to-face interviews by enumerators trained to conduct structured questionnaires in both English and the local language Luganda. Pork was most commonly purchased raw (48%), followed by fried (38%), roasted (9%) and cooked (5%). It was the second most common meat consumed at home after beef, followed by poultry, sheep, goat and fish. Pork was consumed on average 2.18 times per week. One third of households bought raw pork occasionally, while rates of “once per two weeks” (20%), “once a week” (20%), a few times a week (15%) or every day (15%) were also noted. Most (82%) customers ate their pork with raw and cooked vegetables, including matoke (59%), cassava (51%), tomatoes (9%), cabbage (5%), Irish potatoes (4%), onions (3%), greens (2%) and others. The main source of information for customers were television (68%), radio (29%), newspaper (15%), internet (10%), friends (9%), colleagues (2%) or others. Health aspects influenced the majority of respondents’ purchase decisions a lot (89%), while 9% stated “a bit” and 2% “not at all”. The high demand for pork along with the potential for cross contamination between raw pork and vegetables, indicates a food safety risk at not just pork butcheries but also at household level. Promotion of health aspects through public information channels can be used to influence purchase decisions and contribute to healthier clients and improved public health. This research was carried out with the financial support of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany, and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health, led by the International Food Policy Research Institute, through the Safe Food, Fair Food project at ILRI.

Isolation and identification of Listeria species along the milk value chain in one region of Tanzania

Our latest outputs -

Isolation and identification of Listeria species along the milk value chain in one region of Tanzania Hyera, E.; Msalya, G.; Karimuribo, E.D.; Kurwijila, L.R.; Alonso, S.; Roesel, K.; Grace, D. Milk is an important source of nutrients in the diet. However, due to its nutritional nature it also serves as an ideal medium for growth and development of various microorganisms under suitable conditions. It is a staple food, which is linked to zoonotic pathogens. This study was carried out in two districts (one region namely Tanga) of Tanzania to evaluate the awareness of farmers on milk contamination and to estimate microbial load along the milk value chain. In total 114 respondents were visited to conducted interviews on awareness as well as strategies for solving the problem of milk contamination. Subsequently milk samples were aseptically collected from each of the 114 respondents for laboratory analyses using the standard ISO procedures for food microbial analyses in particular the horizontal methods. We have showed that there are poor hygienic practices by the majority of actors along the milk value chain in Tanga region. Concerning microbial level, our results revealed that above 90 percent of all samples collected showed total plate count (TPC) above standard acceptable in the Eastern Africa countries (EAC) of 2.0x105 CFU/ml. It was also shown that there was more contamination in milk samples obtained from the household farms compared to those which were collected from the milk suppliers and in the extensive farming system than in the intensive system (P < 0.05). Moreover, three Listeria species namely L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes were identified. L. monocytogenes were isolated and identified as the common contaminants in milk along the value chain in the study region.

IPM 2016 4th – 7th October 2016; Registration information

Latest ILRI announcements -

Dear Colleagues

Greetings.

As indicated earlier in a message by Iain Wright, ILRI will hold its Institutional Planning Meeting (IPM) in Nairobi from 4 – 7 October 2016.

The IPM presents a great opportunity for all “ILRI” to know what “ILRI” is doing around the globe.

In 2016, the IPM will focus on ILRI’s science and how its results can be scaled for greater impact. IPM 2016 will also present the corporate context for ILRI, and will provide a platform to identify opportunities for programs to work together

# Better Science; Better Lives (Sayansi Bora; Maisha Bora)

The agenda will encompass:

– Introductory presentations and discussions on ILRI’s science strategy

– Sessions for each program to present key elements of their strategies, interesting results, and introduce new team members

– A marketplace for different service and support teams to share what they do

– A space for individuals to get together to discuss topics of common interests (not already covered within programs)

– A Synthesis of how ILRI undertakes and envisions “better science for better lives”

– Social interactions and networking opportunities

– A daily news print and other communications

If you plan to attend the IPM, we urgently need you to:

1. Complete a pre-IPM survey to help us enrich the IPM agenda: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/ilri-ipm2016

2. REGISTER to attend the IPM at: https://ipm2016.eventbrite.com .

o If you are not based in Nairobi, please seek authorization through your supervisor on your travel plans BEFORE registering.

o There will be an opportunity for you to participate in the IPM sessions from different locations, however, you need to register and indicate which location would be most optimal for you to participate from

o By registering, there is an expectation that you will participate in all the sessions.

3. Note: Guidelines will be provided by Iain Wright on expectations from various program and team meetings for the morning of Tuesday 4 and the afternoon of Friday 7 October.

4. When registering and indicating your travel plans, please take into account any pre- or post IPM workshops and meetings that you may attend (eg: GEF Asia synthesis event pre-IPM; Livestock and Fish flagship meetings post IPM)

We look forward to receiving information from you, and to your active participation in IPM-2016

With kind regards,

Julie Ojango| Chairperson IPM Program planning Committee 2016

International Livestock Research Institute | ilri.org
Box 30709 – 00100 Nairobi, Kenya

 

 

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