An assessment of the economic impacts of the 2019 African swine fever outbreaks in Vietnam

The 2019 African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in Vietnam imposed considerable impacts on the pig sector in Vietnam, resulting in the death or culling of nearly six million pigs, or more than 20% of the country's pig population. In order to assess the magnitude of the outbreak at sector level (both on farm and at value chain level), on livelihoods, and on the broader national economy, a comprehensive impact assessment was conducted using a mixed methods approach that integrated a value chain assessment with the use of quantitative modeling tools at sector and national levels. The results showed that the outbreak caused severe direct and indirect economic losses among farmers, particularly medium- and large-farmers whose livelihoods are largely derived from pig production. The outbreaks also affected other value chain actors due to a halving in the volume of pigs traded. At sector level, the outbreaks posed adverse impacts on the domestic supply and demand for pork, especially in the traditional sector. Meanwhile, the modern sector with higher levels of biosecurity and high technology growth was less likely to be affected and even benefited from the outbreak, which was evidenced by increased supply and income throughout the simulation period in this sector. At national level, different model simulation scenarios showed a sharp reduction in total gross domestic product (GDP) and a substantial loss of jobs. Improvements in the system of ASF compensation scheme are needed, both in terms of its administration, but also in its targeting, with greater emphasis needed on developing improved risk-sharing and funding mechanisms across national and local levels.