Spatiotemporal analysis and assessment of risk factors in transmission of African swine fever along the major pig value chain in Lao Cai province, Vietnam

African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious and lethal hemorrhagic disease with a case fatality rate approaching 100% in domestic pigs. The main objectives of this study were to describe the spatiotemporal analysis as well as to assess the potential risk factors along the pig value chain in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 925 outbreaks were reported from 2019 to 2020. The three clusters (primary, secondary and 5th) were observed near the Chinese border. The most temporal clusters were detected between May and August during the study period. In addition, we evaluated the association between ASF outbreak locations to the nearest main roads and elevation. For ASF outbreak locations to the nearest main roads, compared with the reference (<5,000 m), <1,000 m (10.22 times) and 1,000–2,000 m (1.98 times) were significantly higher occurrences of ASF. For elevation, compared to the reference (>1,500 m), the farm locations with <500 m (55.31 times) showed a significantly increased risk of ASF outbreaks. Farmers perceived that the highest risk of ASF transmission may come from collectors and slaughterers, intermediaries inside and outside the commune, feed agents and maize agents in the commune, and pig retailers. Both commercial and household pig producers considered minimizing the number of people going in and out of pig stables and improving healthcare and husbandry procedures to be both very important and feasible. There is a need for compliance by all pig producers and other actors in the pig value chain to adopt biosecurity practices. Therefore, awareness, knowledge and understanding of infection and risks of ASF need to be improved. Veterinary officials at the provincial and district levels need to improve capacity and resources to perform laboratory analysis for ASF and need to coordinate with local actors on the control and prevention of ASF in the community.