Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and analysis of risk factors among the dairy farms in and around Guwahati metropolitan city, India
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a neglected zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis is being reported worldwide. The present work was carried out from December 2020 to November 2021 to assess the prevalence and risk factors of bTB in peri-urban and urban dairy farms of Guwahati, Assam, India. A questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge about bTB on 36 farms, and ten animals per farm were screened by single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test (SICCT) to determine the prevalence of bTB, giving a total of 360 animals. The demographic data of the farmers revealed that 61.1% respondents were illiterate, 66.7% had no awareness about bovine tuberculosis and 41.7% consumed unpasteurised milk and milk products. SICCT showed that 38 cattle from 18 of the farms were positive reactors for bTB, yielding an overall animal level prevalence of 10.55% (95% confidence interval (CI = 7.58–14.2%) and a 50% herd prevalence (95% CI 32.9–67.1%). Animals 5 years and above were found to be more likely to be positive for bTB (17.18%). The study highlighted the widespread prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in peri-urban and urban dairy farms of Guwahati which gives a picture also about other major cities of India. Hence, it is of utmost importance to undertake a comprehensive epidemiological study in such cities for effective control and prevention of bTB in a one health approach.