Fruit and vegetable shop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Frontiers special edition spotlights CGIAR research on food safety in low- and middle-income countries

A special edition of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems has brought together expert perspectives on the status of food safety in low- and middle-income countries, including the latest evidence on the burden of foodborne disease at national and sub-national levels, with over half of the 24 papers in the edition featuring research by CGIAR scientists and partners.

The health burden of foodborne disease is comparable with that of malaria, and over 90% of this burden falls on people in low- and middle-income countries, with an economic burden of 115 billion United States dollars per year.

Cost of unsafe food

While understanding of food safety in domestic markets of low- and middle-income countries has advanced greatly, evidence gaps have remained in the areas of risk assessment and risk management.

The research papers in this special edition contribute towards closing this gap, with a range of research evidence on foodborne disease prioritisation, risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication, as well as recommendations for policy, practice and further research.

The editors are Delia Grace of the Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Bassirou Bonfoh of Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Barbara Häsler of Royal Veterinary College, London and Hung Nguyen-Viet of ILRI.

“The research topic highlights the diversity of informal markets and the differing needs of stakeholders in these value chains, which is a challenge in terms of scalability,” the editors said.

“Successful interventions are emerging and future research should focus more on solutions especially in terms of scale and sustainability,” they added.

Most of the papers (14) were from Africa, which has the highest per capita burden of foodborne disease, followed by Asia (8), which has the highest overall burden of foodborne disease.

Most studies were on animal-source foods (17) followed by vegetables (5).

Risk assessment predominated (16 papers), followed by risk management (7 papers) and only one paper focused on risk communication.

The individual papers may be accessed via the links below.

Editorial: Food safety in low- and middle-income countries
Delia Grace, Bassirou Bonfoh, Barbara Häsler and Hung Nguyen-Viet

Effect of nixtamalization of maize and heat treatment of soybean on the nutrient, antinutrient, and mycotoxin levels of maize-soybean-based composite flour
Rehema Esther Matendo, Samuel Imathiu, Patchimaporn Udomkun and Willis O. Owino

Describing food safety perceptions among growers and vendors in Cambodian informal vegetable markets
Sabrina Mosimann, Keorimy Ouk, Nora M. Bello, Malyheng Chhoeun, Leah Thompson, Jessie Vipham, Lyda Hok and Paul Ebner

Structure and milk hygiene of dairy cooperative value chains in an intensive production area of Uganda—A bottleneck of intervention
Yoshiharu Sugino, James Bugeza, David Bahame, Joseph Byaruhanga, Haruka Shimazaki, Masahiko Anzai, Taishi Kayano, William Mwebembezi, Andrew Akashaba, Taku Shimada, Yasukazu Muramatsu and Kohei Makita

Heavy metal contamination in retailed food in Bangladesh: a dietary public health risk assessment
Ruhena Begum, Rahima Akter, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Shariful Islam, Nure Alam Siddiky, ASM Ashab Uddin, Asheak Mahmud, Md Samun Sarker, Delia Grace, Mohammed Abdus Samad and Johanna F. Lindahl

Diarrhea illness in livestock keeping households in Cambodia: An analysis using a One Health framework
Shingo Asakura, Borin Khieu, Sokerya Seng, Samkol Pok, Chhay Ty, Chiv Phiny, Teng Srey, Stuart D. Blacksell, Jeffrey Gilbert, Delia Grace and Silvia Alonso

Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in Africa’s water-plant-food interface: A meta-analysis (2010–2022)
Loandi Richter, Erika M. Du Plessis, Stacey Duvenage and Lise Korsten

Assessing milk products quality, safety, and influencing factors along the dairy value chain in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Samy Bashizi Bacigale, Rodrigue Basengere Ayagirwe, Valence Bwana Mutwedu, Yannick Mugumaarhahama, Janvier Zirhumana Mugisho, Zabron Nziku, Mamadou Fofana, Patchimaporn Udomkun and Jacob Mignouna

Using a value chain framework for food safety assessment of edible offals in Nairobi, Kenya
Anima Sirma, Evans Muthuma, John Kariuki, Agnes Maina, Joyce Thaiya and Obadiah Njagi

Exploring the composition and structure of milk and meat value chains, food safety risks and governance in the Addis Ababa and Oromia regions of Ethiopia
Ndungu S. Nyokabi, Johanna F. Lindahl, Lisette T. Phelan, Stefan Berg, Gizachew Gemechu, Adane Mihret, James L. N. Wood and Henrietta L. Moore

Describing capability, opportunity, and motivation for food safety practices among actors in the Cambodian informal vegetable market
Sabrina Mosimann, Keorimy Ouk, Nora M. Bello, Malyheng Chhoeun, Jessie Vipham, Lyda Hok and Paul Ebner

Quantitative assessment of aflatoxin exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk associated with consumption of select Nigerian staple foods
Anthony Wenndt, Florence Mutua, Delia Grace, Lian F. Thomas and Elisabetta Lambertini

Impact of perception and assessment of consumers on willingness to pay for upgraded fresh pork: An experimental study in Vietnam
Hai Hoang Tuan Ngo, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Mats Målqvist, Phuc Pham-Duc, Phi Nguyen-Hong, Hang Le-Thi, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Trang T. H. Le, Delia Grace, Johanna F. Lindahl and Fred Unger

A glance into traditional pig slaughtering practices in Vietnam and opportunities for zoonotic disease prevention
Nancy I. Ting, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Jeffrey Gilbert, Nguyen Thao Thi Nguyen, Steven Lam and Hung Nguyen-Viet

Milk purchase and consumption patterns in peri-urban low-income households in Kenya
Emmanuel Muunda, Nadhem Mtimet, Eric Bett, Francis Wanyoike and Silvia Alonso

Foodborne disease hazards and burden in Ethiopia: A systematic literature review, 1990–2019
Lina Gazu, Silvia Alonso, Florence Mutua, Kristina Roesel, Johanna F. Lindahl, Kebede Amenu, Filipe Maximiano Sousa, Pattama Ulrich, Tadesse Guadu, Michel Dione, Guy Ilboudo, Theodore Knight-Jones and Delia Grace

State of the art of breeding, milking, and milk processing for the production of curdled milk and Wagashi Gassirè in Benin: Practices favoring the contamination of its dairy products
Gwladys S. Komagbe, Alphonse Dossou, Baké Marie-Thérèse Seko Orou, Philippe Sessou, Paulin Azokpota, Issaka Youssao, Joseph Hounhouigan, Marie-Louise Scippo, Antoine Clinquart, Jacques Mahillon and Souaïbou Farougou

Quantitative analysis of knowledge, attitude and practice of workers in chicken slaughter slabs toward food safety and hygiene in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Ayalew Assefa, Michel Dione, Guy Ilboudo, Valerie Lallogo, Biruk Alemu Gemeda, Delia Grace and Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

Quantitative risk assessment of salmonellosis in Cambodian consumers through chicken and pork salad consumption
Chea Rortana, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Fred Unger, Johanna F. Lindahl, Sothyra Tum, Chhay Ty, Delia Grace, Kristina Osbjer and Sofia Boqvist

Food safety knowledge, needed and trusted information of pork consumers in different retail types in Northern Vietnam
Trang Thi-Huyen Le, Shonara Jayde Langley, Jordan Gibson Dunham, Sinh Dang-Xuan, Fred Unger, Hai Hoang Tuan Ngo, Luong Nguyen-Thanh, Hung Nguyen-Viet and Jenny-Ann Toribio

A review of the roles of men, women, and youth in ensuring food safety in the smallholder poultry value chain in Kenya
Ariel V. Garsow, Erica G. Kim, Kathleen E. Colverson, Sanja Ilic, Catherine Kunyanga, Abdiaziz Bainah and Barbara B. Kowalcyk

Antibiotic use, knowledge, and practices of milk vendors in India’s informal dairy value chain
Garima Sharma, Eithne Leahy, Ram Pratim Deka, Bibek R. Shome, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Tushar K. Dey, Naresh Kumar Goyal, Åke Lundkvist, Delia Grace and Johanna F. Lindahl

Burden of foodborne disease due to bacterial hazards associated with beef, dairy, poultry meat, and vegetables in Ethiopia and Burkina Faso, 2017
Arie H. Havelaar, Amanda C. Sapp, Mirna P. Amaya, Gabriela F. Nane, Kara M. Morgan, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Delia Grace, Theo Knight-Jones and Barbara B. Kowalcyk

The governance of quality and safety in Tanzania’s informal milk markets
Emma Blackmore, Alejandro Guarin, Charity Kinyua, William Vorley, Delia Grace and Silvia Alonso

Food safety knowledge and risk perception among pregnant women: A cross-sectional study in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic
Safaa Almanasrah, Tareq M. Osaili, Anas A. Al-Nabulsi, Nail A. Obeidat, Amer M. Sindiani, Lina Elsalem, Hana Alkhalidy, Maysm N. Mohamad, Sheima T. Saleh, Rameez Al Daour, Ayesha S. Al Dhaheri and Leila Cheikh Ismail

Photo credit: Fruit and vegetable shop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (University of Florida/Geraldine Klarenberg)